Systemic Intervention: Philosophy, Methodology, and Practice

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Springer Science & Business Media, Jan 31, 2001 - Social Science - 447 pages
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This book aims to rethink systemic intervention to enhance its relevance for supporting social change in the 21st century. It offers a new systems philosophy and methodology, focusing upon the fundamental importance of exploring value and boundary judgements as part of the intervention process. It includes four detailed examples of the practice of systemic intervention.

 

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Contents

Systems Thinking for the 21st Century
1
11 From Mechanism to Systems Thinking
2
12 From Observation to Intervention
4
13 From Theories of Eventhing to Theoretical Pluralism
5
14 Tfie Structure and Contents of this Book
7
15 Practical Consequences for Life in the 21st Century
10
151 Interconnectedness
11
152 Scepticism about ValueNeutral Science
12
915 A Key Implication of Third Wave Thinking
214
916 Conclusion
215
Mixing Methods
217
101 The System of Systems Methodologies
218
1011 Total Systems Intervention
222
1012 Philosophical Underpinnings
223
1013 Summary
224
102 The Creative Design of Methods
225

753 The Politics of Social Exclusion
14
16 Conclusion
16
Philosophy
19
Why Philosophy?
21
21 Two Grounds for Exploring Philosophy
22
22 Terminology
23
24 Kellys Personal Construct Theory
26
25 Habermass Three Worlds
27
26 Tfie Need for Philosophy
28
27 Ttie Strategic Reason for Engaging with Philosophy
29
28 The Importance of Philosophical Argument
30
29 Conclusion
32
The Systems Idea
33
31 The Meaning of Systems Philosophy
34
32 The Boundary Concept
36
Mechanism Reductionism and SubjectlObject Dualism
39
34 The Struggle against SubjectObject Dualism
43
35 General Systems Theory
45
351 Critique of General Systems Theory
46
36 The Theory of Mind
48
361 Critique of the Theory of Mind
51
37 The Theory of Autopoiesis
53
371 Critique of the Theory of Autopoiesis
57
38 Interpretive Systemology
59
381 Critique of Interpretive Systemology
63
39 Conclusion
67
Process Philosophy
69
42 The Linguistic Turn
70
43 A Linguistic Turn in Systems Thinking
71
44 The Theory of Three Worlds
73
45 A Critique of the Linguistic Turn
75
46 The Origins of Knowledge
76
47 From Content to Process Philosophy
78
48 Defining Knowledge
81
49 Sentient Beings
82
491 Shorthand Expressions of Boundary Judgements
85
411 The Importance of Time
87
412 The Indeterminacy of Process
88
413 Some Consequences of Process Philosophy for Speaking about Reality
89
4131 Realism
90
4133 Social Constructionism
91
4135 From Realism to Process
92
4136 From Idealism to Process
93
4137 From Social Constructionism to Process
95
414 Conclusion
98
Methodology
101
Why Methodology?
103
51 Why Methodology?
104
52 Method and Methodology
105
53 The Argument against Philosophical Purism
106
54 Tlie Spectre of Instrumental Rationality
109
55 Arguments against the Atheoretical Use of Methods
110
56 Conclusion
112
Systemic Intervention
113
61 Observation versus Intervention
115
611 Observation as the Basis of Science
116
612 Intervention as the Basis of Action Research
117
613 Summary of the Distinction between Observation and Intervention
120
63 The Impossibility of Independent Observation
123
64 Observation as Intervention
125
65 Systemic Intervention
128
66 Towards a Methodology for Systemic Intervention
129
67 Conclusion
132
Boundary Critique
135
71 The Bounded Nature of Improvement
137
72 Critical Systems Heuristics
138
721 Key Differences between Churchman and Ulrich
142
731 Is there a Need for a Sociological Theory?
146
732 Making Critical Boundary Judgements
148
733 Key Differences between Churchman Wrick and Myself
149
74 Elaborating the Theory of Boundary Critique
152
741 Modelling the Overlapping Concerns of Stakeholder Groups
153
742 A Key Difference between Yolles and Myself
155
75 Conclusion
156
Theoretical Pluralism
159
SI Beyond the Cumulative View of Knowledge
160
82 Theory in Action
161
83 Choice between Theories
162
84 Standards and Principles for Choice
166
85 Conclusion
168
Methodological Pluralism
171
92 The Value of Learning from Other Methodologies
173
93 The Value of a Plurality of Methods
174
94 A History of Methodologies and Methods
176
95 What is History?
177
96 Scientific Methods
179
97 Applied Science
182
972 The Human Relations Movement
183
973 Operational Research
184
974 Action Research and Action Learning
185
98 Psychoanalysis
186
99 The First Wave of Systems Thinking
187
991 SocioTechnical Systems Thinking
188
992 Systemic Family Therapy
189
993 Systemic Operational Research
190
910 The Second Wave of Systems Thinking
191
9102 Some Management Systems Methods from the Second Wave
193
9103 Dialogical Family Therapy
197
9111 Participative Action Research113
198
9112 Problem Structuring Methods in OR
200
912 The Third Wave of Systems Thinking
202
9121 Critiques of the Second Wave of Systems Thinking
203
9122 The Birth of Critical Systems Thinking
204
9123 Revisioning Critical Systems Thinking
206
9124 The Third Wave of Family Therapy
210
913 Power Issues and Action Research
211
914 Multimethodology
213
1021 The Role of Intuition
227
1022 The Pivotal Role of the Intervener
228
103 Practising the Creative Design of Methods
230
1031 Purposes
231
1033 Theories
232
1034 Ideologies
233
1035 Practical Results
236
104 Writing Up Interventions
237
1051 Limitations of the System of Systems Methodologies
238
1052 Challenging the Philosophy behind the System of Systems Methodologies
239
306 Conclusion
241
Learning about Methodology and Methods
243
331 The Philosophical Problem
244
113 The Psychological Problem
245
114 Proposed Solutions
246
1142 Towards a New Paradigm
247
7143 Paradigm Incommensurability
249
1144 Critically Appreciating Alien Paradigms
251
1145 Virtual Paradigms
252
115 A Model of Learning
253
1151 Continuity and Discontinuity
254
1152 Philosophical Reflections
260
1153 Reflections on Practice
261
1154 Reflections on Theory
262
H55 Espoused Methodology and Methodology in Use
264
116 Reflections on the Three Challenges
266
1163 Dealing with the Cultural Problem
267
117 Conclusion
268
Practice
269
Why Practice?
271
122 Why Practice?
272
124 The Arguments against Pure Methodology
274
125 Conclusion
276
Community Operational Research
279
131 The Origins of Community OR
281
132 Motivations for Involvement in Community OR
282
133 The Breadth of Community OR Practice
283
134 The Community Operational Researcher as an Agent
285
135 Conclusion
288
Developing Housing Services for Older People
289
142 The Initial Remit of the Intervention
290
Identifying Problems
291
144 Designing the Methods for the Second Phase
294
Designing Improvements
297
1451 Designing Organisational Delivery
301
146 The Design of Methods
304
147 Conclusion
306
Planning for Disaster
309
151 Choosing Methods from Just One Source
310
154 Boundary Critique
311
155 Choosing Soft Systems Methodology
313
156 Soft Systems Methodology
316
157 The Process of Application
319
1572 Producing Rich Pictures
320
1573 Identifying Relevant Systems
321
1574 Exploring the Relevant Systems
322
1575 Whole System Modelling
323
1576 Conceptual Modelling
325
1577 Creating an Action Plan
326
158 Learning Outcomes
327
159 Feedback on the Intervention
330
1510 Conclusion
331
Planning and Evaluating Diversion from Custody for Mentally Disordered Offenders
333
161 Diversion from Custody
334
162 The Project
335
163 Negotiating the Remit
337
164 Some Preliminary Boundary Critique
341
165 The TeamBuilding
342
166 The Operational Planning
345
1661 Outputs from the Soft Systems Methodology
346
167 Designing the Evaluation Methods
347
168 Quantitative Methods
348
169 Qualitative Methods
351
1693 Shadowing
353
1695 Documentary Research
354
1631 The Strategic Planning
355
16111 Critical Systems Heuristics
357
16113 The Workshops
358
1612 Findings
361
16122 Results of Final Interventions
362
16123 The Management Structure
363
1613 Outcomes
364
1614 Conclusion
365
Developing Services with Young People Under 16 Missing from Home or Care
367
172 First Contacts
369
173 Our Initial Proposal
370
174 An Overview of the Intervention
371
175 Establishing the Ground Rules
372
Identifying Key Issues
373
1761 Designing the Interviews
374
1762 Conducting the Interviews
376
Evolving Stakeholder Goals
378
1772 Conducting the Workshops
382
1774 The Young Peoples Workshop
385
1775 The Second MultiAgency Workshop
387
Action Planning
389
1781 The Final MultiAgency Workshop
393
Dissemination
395
1711 Conclusion
396
Looking to the Future
397
181 Further Issues to be Addressed
398
1812 The Politics of Systemic Intervention
399
182 Start from Where You Are
401
References
403
Author Index
427
Subject Index
435
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