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Overview of Process Integration Issues for LowK Dielectrics
Fundamental Aspects of Polymer Metallization
LiquidPhase Deposition of LowK Organic
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addition adhesion annealing applications atoms bonds calculated capacitance carbon cause characteristics chemical compared concentration copper crack curing decrease density dependence deposition depth determined developed devices dielectric constant diffusion e-beam effect electrical electron energy etch Figure fluorine frequency function glass groups heating higher hydrogen increase indicate integration interconnect interface layer less lines load low-k lower materials measured mechanical metal moisture observed obtained organic oxide oxygen peak performance plasma polished polyimide polymer polymerization porosity porous precursors present Proc properties pulse ratio reaction reduced relative removal Research resistance samples shown in Figure shows silica silicon SiO2 spectra stability stress structure substrate surface Symp Table technique temperature thermal thickness thin films treatment values Volume wafer wiring xerogel