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are mild totain about thirty-tigat thousand words, derivatives
It was not used by the Anglo-Saxons;
ters. But its numbers
bounds, a fact which ****** 21. 1. Dus, very east to
at 7- Ilare, besides speedilt **** ILIR o comunds for itself
, :1.00 WIDTIL from its parent. mm" me Iraced in two classes.
privind prepositions or E SE LIL PET resentatives of our MISI 11. nant such words as
come and in-go: to up1.1 DE: Doror-come and beT This thast two words are
rds from the French; ***TET 2+ is probabis not one
r.hr the war, the – རྒྱུ རྒྱུ རྒྱུ : ས ་ མ ཀ
me To Substantives,
tra' meaning. In56: Thundercloud,
Fkabulary of art standonment of one
Savon name for Art, ham E.
Emples are furnished
be represented br the on your
Taure, astronomy, 2. 2027 Breite from the same
Of the ancient les o, cominciare Handicraft and 14*5.4, 11. augtuben in the things
** ep through all the storms th,uny (384
11. The als wet is. Girl, which relates to the Pro putin od razon Wires rate in our language, may be sought boy two methveis.
"Th. 113, besten ins to the Dictionaries of Modern English. They de internally itir Walter Scott.
dhe / ou move but the word Priestcraft.
and compounds included it to F* gr. three thousand come to the ALT
--little less than five-cirkusu wa
The other test has been an IT7.. Passages have been analyzri SIL 17.: Scriptures, and from fuurel pri 3217 verse, of whom the poet Spui son the latest. Of the whole or
DIN E that are not of Saxon ongi lakejes Tautas than four-tirths as native. The 1st Intim vary widely. The transators of it binatario An extract from the book of Gejas las * twenty-sixth ; and another from the Granda one thirty-seventh; the average of the 101 ninth. Among the other wiens de Tras 1. Dean Swift, whose foreign words amsen. U and Gibbon the historian, who has con TLX third. *
This somewhat whimsical investigation is 192 ting into our own century. To be really uxfu. 2 the groundwork of a general classification of the word IL ir language, the examples would have to be both copious and has and the topics treated in the extracts should be very various in a criterion by which to judge of an author's style, such an alia:vsis is, for many reasons, useless in all cases except such as present extreme peculiarities.
* The particulars may be amusing ; though they will perbaps confirm the opinion expressed in the text, that style cannot fairly be tried by such a standard. The whole number of words is 164€, of which the foreign obes are 303. The writers stand thus, in the order o their proportiona, pinty: Translators of Bible, baring foreigd wordsSwit less than : Cowjet. less than , Shakspeare, less than : Vitor :: Spenser. Advindl, and the poet Thomson, less than : Locke and Tabelali Robertson, the historian less than 5. Pipe Gibbon, much more than —The pa zagen examples for Turper's Anglo-Saxons, voi ii, pri Edinburgh Reviewer before cited: auc tie ir 13mm, rom reckoned in detail.
whose place is supplied from other quarters. But its numbers are swelled by a huge mass of lost Compounds, a fact which it is interesting to remark, though not, at all points, very easy to account for. It shows that the new language, besides speedily acquiring an inaptitude to the making of compounds for itself, gave up very many of those which it inherited from its parent.
Most of the obsolete compounds are embraced in two classes.
The first consists of Verbs formed by prefixing prepositions or adverbs to the radical word. Thus the old representatives of our words “ Come and Go,” brought with them many such words as these: To out-come and out-go; to in-come and in-go; to upcome and up-go; to off-come and off-go; to before-come and before-go. Nearly all such old compounds of these two words are out of use, and have their places filled by words from the French; while, of the few which we still have, there is probably not one that is used otherwise than figuratively.
The second class of compounds (in which, by the way, the modern German is ponderously prolific) united two Substantives, the former of which took an adjectival or genitival meaning. Instances still surviving are such terms as these: Thundercloud, thunderstorm, earthquake, swordbearer. . Our vocabulary of art and science has been greatly affected by our abandonment of one group of such words, formed from the Anglo-Saxon name for Art, which is the parent of our modern Craft. Examples are furnished by terms which, in modern English, would be represented by the following: Song-craft, book-craft, star-craft, number-craft, leechcraft. These we have Latinized into Poetry, literature, astronomy, arithmetic, and medicine: and we have named from the same source all the rest of our most ambitious pursuits. Of the ancient family once so flourishing, the sole survivors are Handicraft and Witchcraft; names which were borne up through all the storms of the middle ages by the unceasing interest taken in the things they denote. *
11. The answer to our second query, which relates to the Proportion of Saxon Words retained in our language, may be sought by two methods.
The one leads us to the Dictionaries of Modern English. They are said to contain about thirty-eight thousand words, derivatives
* Woodcraft, if the word is now alive at all, is so only after having been disinterred by Sir Walter Scott. It was not used by the Anglo-Saxons; because they had not, till the Norman times, the thing it signifies. Nor do they seem to have had the word Priestcraft. Saint Dunstan might have given occasion for it; but among the Saxon clergy we read of very few Dunstans.
and compounds included. Of these, we are told, about twentythree thousand come from the Anglo-Saxon, which thus yields a little less than five-eighths of the whole number.
The other test has been applied to the proportions in this way. Passages have been analyzed, from the authorized version of the Scriptures, and from fourteen popular writers, both in prose and verse, of whom the poet Spenser is the earliest, and Samuel Johnson the latest. Of the whole number of words examined, those that are not of Saxon origin make less than one-fifth, leaving more than four-fiïths as native. The proportions in the several cases vary widely. The translators of the Bible are by far the purest. An extract from the book of Genesis has, of foreign words, one twenty-sixth ; and another from the Gospel of Saint John has one thirty-seventh; the average of the two being one twentyninth. Among the other writers, the extreme places are held by Dean Swift, whose foreign words amount to fewer than one-ninth; and Gibbon the historian, who has considerably more than onethird. *
This somewhat whimsical investigation is not worth prosecuting into our own century. To be really useful, for so much as the groundwork of a general classification of the words in the language, the examples would have to be both copious and many, and the topics treated in the extracts should be very various. As a criterion by which to judge of an author's style, such an analysis is, for many reasons, useless in all cases except such as present extreme peculiarities.
* The particulars may be amusing ; though they will perhaps confirm the opinion expressed in the text, that style cannot fairly be tried by such a standard. The whole number of words is 1696, of which the foreign ones are 303. The writers stand thus, in the order of their proportional purity : Translators of Bible, having foreign words, zo; Swift, less than ; ; Cowley, less than , Shakspeare, less than į ; Milton, full }; Spenser, Addison, and the poet Thomson, less than }; Locke and Young, full }; Johnson, full 1; Robertson, the historian, less than $; Pope, t; Hume, the historian, full }; Gibbon, much more than :—The passages examined will be found in Turner's Anglo-Saxons, vol. ii. (ed. 1836); the words were counted by the Edinburgh Reviewer before cited; and the proportions have now been reckoned in detail.
SECTION FIRST: SCHOLASTIC AND ECCLESIASTICAL LITERATURE IN
INTRODUCTION. 1. Impulses affecting Literature-Checks impeding it—The Reforma
tion-State Affairs Classical Learning. 2. Influence of the Age on the Literature of the Next-Its Social Importance. CLASSICAL LEARNING. 3. Benefits of Printing -Greek and Latin Studies-Eminent Names-THEOLOGY. 4. Translations of the Holy Scriptures-Tyndale's Life and Labours—Coverdale-Rogers-CranmerReigns of Edward the Sixth and Mary-Increase of Printers. 5. Original English Writings in Theology-Their General Character-Ridley-Cranmer-Tyndalo's Con. troversial Treatises—Latimer's Sermons-Character of Latimer's Oratory.
INTRODUCTION TO THE PERIOD.
1. The great frontier-line, between the Literary History of the Middle Ages and that of the times which we distinguish as Modern, lies, for England at least, in the early years of the sixteenth century. Intellect then began to be stirred by impulses altogether new; while others, which had as yet been held in check, were allowed, one after another, to work freely.
Yet there did not take place any sudden or universal metamorphosis, either in literature, or in those phenomena, social, intellectual, and religious, by which its forms and its spirit were determined. No such suddenness or completeness of change is possible. As well might the traveller, in descending southward from the pine-forests and icy peaks of the Alps, hope to find himself transported at once into the orange-groves of Naples, or to see the palms of Sicily waving above his head.