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who nourishes and strengthens the spiritual life of believers, when they eat him, that is to say, when they apply and receive him by faith in the spirit. Christ, that he might represent unto us this spiritual and heavenly bread, hath instituted an earthly and visible bread, as a sacrament of his body, and wine as a sacrament of his blood, to testify by them unto us, that, as certainly as we receive and hold this sacrament in our hands, and eat and drink the same with our mouths, hy which our life is afterwards nourished, we also do as certainly receive by faith (which is the hand and mouth of our sonl) the true body and blood of Christ our only Saviour in our souls, for the support of our spiritual life. Now, as it is certain and heyond all doubt, that Jesus Christ hath not enjoined to us the use of his sacraments in vaio, so be work, in us all that he represents to us by these holy signs, though the manner surpasses our undestapding, and cannot be comprehended by us, as the operations of the Holy Ghost are hidden and incomprehensible.

In the mean time we err not, when we say, that what is eaten and drunk hy us is the proper and natural body, and the proper blood of Christ. But the manner of our partaking of the same, is not by the mouth, but by the spirit througla faith. Thus then, though Christ always sits at the right hand of his Father in the heavens, yet doth he not therefore cease to make us partakers of himself by faith. This feast is a spiritual table, at which Christ coinmunicates himself with all his benefits to us, and gives us there to enjoy both himself, and the merits of his sufferings and death, nourishing, strengthening and comforting our poor comfortless souls, by the eating of his flesh, quickening and refreshing them by the drinking of his blood. Further, though the sacraments are connected with the thing signified, nevertheless both are not received by all med: the ungodly indeed receives the sacrament to his condemnation, but he doth not receive the truth of the sacrament. As Judas and Simon the sorcerer, both indeed received the sacrament, but not Christ, who was signified by it, of whom believers only are made partakers. Lastly, we receive this holy sacrament in the assembly of the people of God, with humility and reverence, keeping up amongst us a holy remembrance of the death of Christ our Saviour, with thanksgiving : making there confession of our faith, and of the christian religion. Therefore no one ought to come to this table, without having previously rightly examined himself; lest by eating of this bread and drinking of this cup, he eat and drink judgment to himself. In a word, we are excited by the use of this holy sacrament, to a fervent love towards God, and our neighbour. Therefore we reject all mixtures and damnable inventions, which men have added unto, and blended with the sacraments, as profanations of them: and affirm that we ought to rest satisfied with the ordinance, which Christ and his apostles have taught us, and that we must speak of them in the same manner as they have spoken.

XXXVI. Of Magistrates. We believe that our gracious God, because of the depravity of mankind, hath appointed kings, princes and magistrates, willing that the world should be governed by certain laws and policies; to the end that the dissoluteness of men might he restrained, and all things carried on among them with good order and decency. For this purpose he hath invested the magistracy with the sword, for the punishment of evil doers, and for the protection of them that do well. And their office is, not only to have regard unto, and watch for the welfare of the civil state; but also that they protect the sacred ministry; and thus may remove and prevent all idolatry and false worship; that the kingdom of antichrist may be thus destroyed, and the kingdom of Christ promoted. They must therefore countenance the preaching of the word of the gospel every where, that God may be honoured and worsbipped by every one, as he commands in his word. Moreover, it is the hounden duty of every one, of what state, quality or condition soever be may be, to subject himself to the magistrates; to pay tribute, to show

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due honour and respect to them, and to ohey them in all things which are not repugnant to the word of God; to supplicate for them in their prayers, that God may rule and guide them in all their ways, and that we may lead a quiet and peaceable life in all godliness and honesty. Wherefore we detest the anabaptists and other seditious people, and in general all those, who reject the higher powers and magistrates, and would subvert justice, introduce a community of goods, and confound that decency and good order, which God hath established among men.

XXXVII. Of the last judgment. Finally we believe, according to the word of God, when the time appointed by the Lord (which is unknown to all creatures) is come, and the number of the elect complete, that our Lord Jesus Christ will come from heaven, corporally and visibly, as he ascended, with great glory and majesty to declare himself judge of the quick and the dead; burning this old world with fire and flame, to cleanse it. And then all men will personally appear before this great judge, both men and women and children, that have been from the beginning of the world to the end thereof, being summoned by the voice of the archangel, and by the sound of the trumpet of God. For all the dead shall be raised out of the earth, and their souls joined and united with their proper bodies, in which they formerly lived. As for those, who shall then be living, they shall not die as the others, but be changed in the twinkling of an eye, and from corruptible, become incorruptible. Then the books (that is to say the consciences) shall be opened, and the dead judged according to what they shall have done in this world, whether it be good or evil. Nay, an men shall give an account of every idle word they have spoken, which the world only counts amusement and jest : and then the secrets and hypocrisy of men shall be disclosed and laid open before all. And therefore the consideration of this judgment, is justly terrible and dreadful to the wicked and ungodly, but most desirable and comfortable to the righteous and the elect: because then their full deliverance shall be perfected, and there they shall receive the fruits of their labour and trouble, which they have horne. Their innocence shall be known to all, and they shall see the terrible vengeance which God shall execute on the wicked, who most cruelly persecuted, oppressed and tormented them in this world; and who shall be convicted by the testimony of their own copsciences, and being immortal, shall be torinented in that everlasting fire, which is prepared for the devil and his angels. But on the contrary the faithful and elect shall be crowned with glory and honour; and the Son of God will confess their names before God his Father, and his elect angels; all tears shall be wiped from their eyes; and their cause, which is now condemned by many judges and magistrates, as heretical and impious, will then he known to be the causc of the Son of God. And for a gracious reward, the Lord will cause them to possess such a glory, as never entered into the heart of man to conceive. Therefore we expect that great day with a most ardent desire, to the end that we inay fully enjoy the promises of God in Christ Jesus our Lord. Amen. Even so, come Lord Jesus.

Rev. xxii. 20.

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THE LITURGY
OF THE REFORMED DUTCH CHURCH;

OR, TIIR FORMS USED THENEIN. 1. Of Public Prayer.-II. Of the Administration of the Holy Sacraments.

III. Of the Exercise of Church Discipline. IV. Of the Ordination of Church Officers.-V. Of the Celebration of Marriuge.-VI. Of Comforting the Sick. Christian Prayers to be used in the Assembly of the Faithful, and on other

occasions. A Prayer on the Lord's day, before sermon. ETERNAL GOD, and most merciful Father, we humbly prostrate grievously offended; and acknowledge, if thou shouldst enter into judgment with us, that we have deserved nothing but eternal death: for besides that we all are by original sin, unclean in thy sight and children of wrath, conceived in sin and brought forth in iniquity, whereby all manner of evil lusts, striving against thee and our neighbour, dwell within us; we have also indeed, frequently and without end, transgressed thy precepts, neglected what thou hast commanded us, and done what thou hast expressly forbidden us. We have strayed like sheep, and have greatly offended against thee, which we acknowledge, and are heartily sorry for ; nay we confess to our shame, and to the praise of thy mercy towards us, that our sins are more than the hairs of our head, and that we are indebted ten thousand talents, but not able to pay.

Wherefore we are not worthy to be called thy children; nor to lift up our eyes toward Heaven, to pour out our prayers before thee. Nevertheless, O Lord God, and merciful Father, knowing that thou dost not desire the death of a sinner, but that he may turn from his wickedness and live ; and that thy mercy is infinite, which thou showest unto those, who return to thee; we heartily call upon thee, trusting in our Mediator Jesus Christ, who is that Lamb of God, that taketh away the sins of the world, and we beseech thee, to commiserate our infirmity, forgiving us all our sins for Christ's sake. Wash us in the pure fountain of his blood, that we may become clean and white as snow. Cover our nakedness with his innocence and righteousness, for the glory of thy name's sake : clear our understanding of all blindness, and our hearts of all hardness and pride. Open the mouth of thy servant at present, and replenish liim with thy wisdom and knowledge, that he may purely and confidently set forth thy word; prepare also our hearts, that we may bear, understand and keep the same : write thy laws (according to thy promise) in the tables of pur hearts, and strengthen us to delight and walk in the same, to the praise and glory of thy name, and to the

edification of thy church.' O gracious Father, we ask for, and desire all these things in the name of Jesus Christ, who hath taught us thus to pray-Our Father, &c.

A Prayer on the Lord's day, after sermon.

fess before thee, as the truth is, that we are not worthy to lift up our eyes towards Heaven, and to present our prayers before thee, if thou shouldst respect our merits and worthiness : for our consciences accuse us, and our sins bear witness against us; we also know, that thou art a righteous judge, punishing the sins of those, who transgress thy commandments. But, O Lord, since thou hast commanded us to call upon thee in all times of necessity, and hast of thine ineffable mercy proinised to hear our prayers,

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not because of our merits (which are none) but for the merits of our Lorů Jesus Christ, whom thou hast appointed to he our Mediator and Advocate: therefore we forsake all other help, and take our refuge to thy mercy alone.

Especially, O Lord, besides the innumerable benefits, which thou showest to all mankind in general on earth, thou hast in particular bestowed manifold favours on us, which we are not capable to comprehend or express : for thou hast delivered us from the woful slavery of the devil, and all idolatry, wherein we were held, and hast brought us to the light of thy truth, and to the knowledge of thy Holy Gospel. On the contrary, we have by our ingratitude been regardless of these thy benefits, we have departed from thee, and have followed our own devices, not bonouring thee, as was our bounden duty to do. Thus have we, O Lord, grievously sinned, and highly offended thee, and can expect nothing else than everlasting death and damnation, if thou shouldst deal with us according to our deserts. Yea we also perceive, O Lord, by the chastisement, which

thou daily art inflicting on us, that thou art justly displeased with us. For since thou art just, thou wilt punish no man without

cause, and we also see thine hand stretched out, further to punish us. But though thou didst punish us more severely than thou bast hitherto done, nay, though all the plagues fell upon us, wherewith thou didst visit the sins of thy people Israel, we must still confess that thou wouldst do us no injustice. But, O Lord, thou art our God, and we are but dust and ashes : thou art our Creator, and we are thy handy work: thou art our Shepherd, and we are thy sheep: thou art our Redeemer, and we are those whom thou bast redeemed. Thou art our Father, and we are thy children and heirs. Therefore do not punish us in thine anger, but chastise us mercifully, and preserve that work, which thou hast of thy mercy begim in us, that the whole world may know and acknowledge thee to be our God and Saviour. Thy people Israel frequently offended thee, and thou didst justly punish them; but as ost as they turned themselves again to thee, thou didst always mercifully receive them into favour. And though their sins and transgressions were ever so great, thou didst always avert thy wrath and punishment prepared for them, by reason of the covenant which thou hadst made with thy servants, Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob; so that thou never hast refused to hear the prayers of thy people. And we have of thy mercy even that same covenant, which thou hast erected in the hand of Jesus Christ our Mediator, between thee and all believers : nay, it is now more glorious and efficacious, since Christ hath ratified and confirmed the same by his holy suffering and death, and entrance into his glory. Therefore, O Lord, forsaking ourselves, and all human assistance, we fy for succour to this blessed covenant of grace, by means whereof our Lord Jesus Christ (having offered his body once on the cross as a persect sacrifice for us) hath reconciled us with thee forever. Therefore, O Lord, look upon the face of thine anointed, and not on our sins, that thine anger may be appeased by his intercession. And cause thy face to shine on us to our joy and salvation. Take us henceforth into thy holy guidance and protection, and govern us by thy holy Spirit, who, daily more and more mortifying our flesh with all its lusts, renews us to a better life, and produces in us fruits of true faith, that hereby thy name may be glorified and praised to all eternity, and that we despising all transitory things may with an ardent desire fis our thoughts only on things heavenly.

And in as much as it is thy pleasure that we should pray for all mankind, we leseech thee, to extend thy blessings on the doctrine of thy holy Gospel that it may be preached and accepted every where ; that the whole world may be filled with thy saving knowledge; that the ignorant may be converted, the weak strengthened ; that every one, not only in word, but also in deed, may inagnify and sanctify thy holy name. Send forth, for this end, faithful labourers in thy harvest.-And also replenish them with thy grace, that they may faithfully serve before thee. On the contrary, utterly destrog all false teachers, ravenous wolves, and hirelings, who seek their own bosaour ind advantage, and not the glory of thy holy name, nor the welfare and salı

vation of souls. Be also pleased graciously to preserve and govern all thy christian churches spread over the face of the earth, in unity of true faith, and in Godliness of life, that thy kingdom may daily increase, and that of satan be destroyed, till thy kingdom is perfected, when thou shalt be all in all.

Particularly we pray for these United States of America; keep them under thy holy protection; prosper them in their agriculture, manufactures, commerce and literature; and let their civil and religious rights be preserved inviolate to the latest posterity.

Bless and long preserve thy servant, the President of the United States. Bless the Vice President; the Senate and house of Representatives, when in congress assembled. Bless all placed in authority throughout the states, and especially in the state wherein we reside; the Governor of the state, the Magistrates, and all others entrusted with powers, either legislative or exècutive.-Replenish them with all thy grace and heavenly gifts, each in his respective calling and state, wherein thou hast placed him, that they may wisely govern, and strenuously protect the people, whom thou hast committed to their care, faithfully defend thy worship and rightly administer justice: preside with thy holy Spirit in their assemblies, that in all cases they may resolve nothing, but what is good and becoming, and let the laws be happily executed ; that these United States being preserved from all ene

l mies, the evil doers punished, and the just protected, thy name thereby may be praised, and the kingdom of the King of kings, Christ Jesus, promoted : and that we may lead a quiet and peaceable life in all godliness and honesty. Moreover we pray for our brethren, who are under persecution or tyramy; comfort them with thy holy Spirit and mercifully deliver them : suffer not thy church wholly to be destroyed, nor the remembrance of thy name to be abolished from the face of the earth, lest the enemies of thy truth triumph to the dishonouring and blaspheming of thy name. But if it is thy divine will, that the suffering christians should die for the glory of thy name, and by their death witness unto the truth, comfort them in their sufferings, that they, considering them as coming from thy fatherly hand, may therefore, doing thy will, remain stedfast, whether in life or death; to thy glory and to the edification of thy church, and to their salvation. We likewise beseech thee, for all those, whom thou dost afilict, with poverty, imprisonment, sickness of body, or trouble of mind; comfort them all, O Lord, according to their several necessities. Grant that their chastisement may bring them to the knowledge of their sins, and to an amendment of their lives.Give them also firm patience; alleviate their sufferings, and finally deliver them, that they may rejoice in thy goodness, and eternally praise thy name.

And, O Lord, take us, together with all that belongs to, or concerns us, in thy keeping. Grant that we may live in our respective callings according to thy will, and so use the gifts which we receive of thy blessing, that they may not impede, but rather further us to life eteroal. Strengthen us in all temptations, that we striving in true faith, may overcome, and hereafter enjoy with Christ life eternal.

We ask thee for all these things, as our faithful Lord, and Saviour Jesus Christ himself hath taughi us-Our Father, &c. Afterwards the congregation is dismissed with the usual blessing.

Receive the blessing of the Lord. The Lord bless thee, and keep thee: The Lord make his face to shine upon thee, and be gracious unto thee : The Lord lift up his countenance upon thee, and give thee peace.

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A prayer before the explanation of the Catechism.

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testimony, making wise the simple, enlightening the eyes of the blind, and a powerful mean unto salyation, for all those, who believe. And whereas we are not only blind by nature, but even incapable of doing any

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