« PreviousContinue »
Dr Henry Holden.
BORN A. D. 1596.-DIED A. D. 1662.
Dr Henry Holden, an eminent catholic divine, was born in Lancashire, of respectable parents, in the year 1596. He studied at Douay, removed to Paris, and was admitted at the Sorbonne, to the degree of D. D. His work, · Divinæ Fidei Analysis,' elegantly reprinted, after several prior editions, by Barbon, in 1767, "acquired him," says Butler, “great reputation. His object was to state with exactness, and in the fewest words possible, all the articles of the catholic faith ; distinguishing these from matters of opinion. With this view, he succinctly states the subject of inquiry, and the points immediately connected with it ; and, after a short discussion of them, inquires, in reference to the subject before him, 'quid necessarie credenduin ?' The solution of this question concludes the article. His work gave general satisfaction : it has been translated into English. L'Avocat says, “it is an excellent work, and comprises, in a few words, the whole economy of religion.' He was unfavourable to Jansenism. • The work of Jansenius,' he writes in a letter made public by his desire, "I never read so much as a page, or even a section of it. But as I find that Jansenius, and the five propositions extracted from it (which I condemned from the first) were condemned by Innocent X —from my respect to so great, and so sacred an authority, I condemn, in the same sense in which they were condemned by him, Jansenius and his propositions.' He subscribed the celebrated censure of the Sorbonne, of the letter of Arnaud to the duke of Liancour, but wished his apology for it to be received." --He died in 1662.
BORN A. D. 1605.-DIED A. D. 1662.
This prelate was born in 1605, and educated at Cambridge. In 1630, having obtained the rectory of Brightwell, in Berkshire, he took advantage of his proximity to Oxford, to enter that university, in which he proceeded D.D. in 1641. Having been appointed chaplain to Robert, earl of Warwick, he espoused the political principles of his patron, and preached with such acceptance to the house of commons in 1640, that they presented him with a silver cup, bearing this inscription—“Donum honorarium Populi Anglicani in parliamento congregati Johanni Gauden.” The next year he received a still more substantial mark of their favour, in being presented to the rich deanery of Bocking, in Essex. Before, however, entering on this appointment, Gauden prudently applied for a collation to it from Archbishop Laud, then a prisoner in the Tower. The archbishop granted it, and Gauden, thus secured against future political contingencies, sat down in his deanery
Upon the abolition of the hierarchy, it suited Dr Gauden to adopt
presbyterian views of church government, and to take the covenant ; this latter step, nevertheless, excited in him “certain scruples and doubts of conscience, with which he afterwards favoured the public. He was also one of those divines who signed the protestation against the king's trial ; he even went further than most of them on this occasion, for he published a religious and loyal protestation against the contemplated proceedings; and, after the king's death, wrote what he called · A just invective against those of the army and their abettors who murthered King Charles I. Had Gauden's zeal on behalf of royalty stopped here he might have preserved his character, and been regarded as an honest, though not a discreet or even perfectly consistent man; but in his future behaviour he betrayed a lamentable want of principle, and clearly indicated the real motives which led him to espouse with such warmth the royalist cause in his incessant applications to Charles II. for promotion and lucrative offices. Soon after the death of Charles I. Gauden made a mean attempt to deceive the public with a work entitled Eixwv Beoinoxn, professing to be the medita
ons of his sacred majesty in his solitude and sufferings.' He gave it out as a genuine work, and as such it was undoubtingly received and estimated for a length of time, but subsequent disclosures have ascertained the forgery, and pretty clearly fixed the authorship of the Icon on Gauden.
In 1659, the doctor succeeded Bishop Brownrigg as preacher to the temple, and upon the restoration he succeeded the same bishop in the see of Exeter. In 1662, he was translated to the see of Worcester. Soon after, the richer living of Winchester became the object of his ambition, but he failed in the attempt to secure it, and died the same year.
BORN, A. D. 1582.--DIED, A. D. 1663.
This eminent prelate was born in Chichester, and received his grammar learning at Merchant-tailor's school, whence he was elected a fellow of St John's college, Oxford, in 1598. He was at first designed for the bar, and, with this view, studied civil law, and enrolled himself at Grey's inn ; but, before completing his terms, he resolved to devote himself to another profession. Having gone through a course of divinity studies, he entered into orders, and, in 1609, was presented by his college to the vicarage of St Giles, Oxford. In 1614, he appears to have held the rectory of Somerton, in the same county. On Dr Laud's resignation of the presidentship of St John's college, Juxon was appointed his successor ; and, in 1626, he executed the office of vicechancellor.
About this time, Charles I. appointed Dr Juxon one of his chaplains in ordinary, and collated bim to the deanery of Worcester, along with which he held a prebend of Chichester. For these promotions, he appears to have been indebted to his early patron, Laud, then bishop of London, who soon after obtained for him the clerkship of his majesty's closet. Juxon's principles, at this period, may be understood from Laud's own statement of the motives which induced him to urge this appointment, namely, that “ he might have one that lie might trust near his majesty, if he himself grew weak or infrm.” The same potent influence procured for Juxon the bishopric of Hereford, in 1633 ; but, before his consecration to that see, he was elevated to the bishopric of London, vacant by the promotion of Laud to the primacy.
In pursuance of that plan of policy which Laud had early adopted, with the vain hope of placing his order beyond the reach of their enemies, and enlarging the influence and dominion of the church, the new primate prevailed on the king to appoint Bishop Juxon to the office of lord-high-treasurer. This step gave great offence. The office in question was one of the very highest political dignity, and had not been filled by a churchman since the reign of Henry VII., since which period the sentiments of the nation had undergone a complete change on this and many other points of state-policy. The personal virtues of the bishop were acknowledged on all hands ; but the investing a clergyman with such an office, and one too “whose name had hardly been known at court above two years,' was a proceeding which created great dissatisfaction, and could have been suggested only by a mind wilfully blind to the signs of the times. Laud, however, valued himself not a little on this nomination. It was one of the poor blinded bigot's master-strokes of policy; and he alludes to it, in his diary, in terms of the most complacent self-satisfaction :-“ Now," says he, “if the church will not hold up themselves, under God, I can do no more !" The nobility, says Clarendon, “ were inflamed” by the appointment upon which Laud so much prided himself; they “ began to look upon the church as a gulf ready to swallow up all the great offices of state.” Equally dissatisfied were the commons; yet, amidst all this heart-burning and jealousy, no one appears to have accused the high-treasurer of misconduct in his political office, or of the slightest approach to peculation. Neal- declares that “ enmity could not impeach him ;" and Granger, with truth, observes, “even the haters of prelacy could never hate Juxon."
The execution of Strafford finally drove Juxon from his invidious office. He warmly opposed the bill of attainder which had been brought against that notorious political profligate, and earnestly besought the king to withhold his assent from the measure. Finding himself unable to resist the movement party of the day, he resigned his civil office, and retired to his episcopal palace at Fulham. Here he abode the result of that political storm which now brooded darkly and threateningly over the kingdom. Repeated attempts were made by both parties in the State to engage the bishop on their side ; but while he avowed himself the friend and supporter of monarchy, he refused to lend himself to the measures now pursuing by the infatuated monarch ; and with equal firmness he resisted all overtures made to him by the parliamentary party. At the treaty of the isle of Wight, he attended as one of the commissioners on the king's side, and he afterwards attended his majesty from the commencement of his trial to the last scene on the scaffold. Charles warmly acknowledged the kind offices of the good bishop throughout his imprisonment and trial, and on the scaffold affirmed, that he had been his greatest earthly support and consolation in the hour of adversity.
On the establishment of the commonwealth, Bishop Juxon retired to his private estate in Gloucestershire ; but he emerged from his obscurity at the Restoration, was elevated to the primacy, and placed the crown on the head of Charles II. He died on the 4th of June, 1603, leaving behind him an unblemished moral reputation.
BORN A. D. 1593.-DIED A. D. 1665.
This distinguished polemic and politician was born in Norfolk in 1593. He received his education at Cambridge, where he took his degree of M. A., and was elected a fellow of Queen's college in 1617. On removing from the university he was chosen vicar of the living of St Stephen's, Coleman street, by the parishioners, from which he was afterwards ejected, on account of his refusal to administer ordinances to all his parishioners promiscuously. Having embraced independent principles, the natural warmth of his temper often led him into frequent and unseemly altercation with his presbyterian brethren. He adopted, and defended with much ability, the opinion of universal restoration, and devoted much of his time to the exposition and defence of Arminian tenets. While we cannot doubt for a moment the sincerity of his opinions on these and some collateral topics, we must regret that he should have chosen so frequently to insist on them, and that he should have so often been betrayed into very unguarded language respecting them. His • Redemption redeemed will always repay the attentive perusal of a clear-headed man; and his · Divine authority of the Scriptures asserted,' is a work of much value and originality. The most obnoxious part of Goodwin's conduct was his vindication of the high court of justice. The pamphlet in which he made this attempt was en. titled • The Obstructors of justice; or a Defence of the honourable sentence passed upon the late King.' It has been pronounced an absurd, execrable, and even impious publication-a piece of savage republicanisin. The following apology has been offered for it by Goodwin's recent biographer, Mr Jackson :-“ It is but justice to Mr Goodwin to state, that in defending the army he was not influenced by any dislike of social order, or by any predilection for a republican government, as opposed to a limited monarchy. In the case of King Charles he was evidently misled by his passion for religious freedom. No man ever lived, who understood the rights of conscience better than he, or who was niore tremblingly alive to their importance. All dominion over conscience he regarded as a usurpation of the Divine prerogative, and a wicked encroachment upon the most sacred rights of human nature. Whereas the king was careful' of episcopal • uniformity,' and the parliament had issued ordinances in restraint of religious liberty sufficient to disgrace even a Spanish government, and to wound the obduracy of a Bonner. Had the king, therefore, been restored to the exercise of his regal functions, when the parliament voted his concessions to be a ground for a future settlement, the probability was, according to the opinion of Mr Goodwin and others, that the episcopalians or the presbyterians, or perhaps both, would enjoy the countenance and protection of the State ; and all other bodies of religious people, after a sacrifice of their property, and an exposure of their lives in the field, would be delivered up to the severities of prosecution. These not improbable anticipations doubtless made a strong impression upon Mr Goodwin's mind, as well as the revenge which he knew to be meditated by the royal party. Under the impulse of those feelings, which such a situation of affairs was calculated to excite, he wrote his two pamphlets in vindication of the army. The political principles inculcated in these publications, as well as in those of his bold compeers, are dangerous and indefensible; they are nevertheless the errors of an ardent and generous mind, desirous, above every thing besides, of restoring to his species those rights which they had received from their Maker, but of which they had been wantonly deprived." This we think satisfactory as an apology for Goodwin. He died in 1665.
Chalmers has treated John Goodwin with more than his usual severity, and, as appears to us, with very little fairness, in the brief notice of him which he has introduced into his · Biographical Dictionary. He represents him as a kind of Ishmaelite, whose hand was perpetually raised against the rest of the world, and who found his chief enjoyment in stirring up strife and angry contention. Against such an impeachment we shall only offer one brief extract from this great man's writings: “My God and my conscience,” he says, “have deeply engaged me in a warfare, very troublesome and costly ; even to contend in a manner with the whole earth, and to attempt the casting down of high things, which exalt themselves against the knowledge of God. And daily experience sheweth, that men's imaginations are their darlings,—that he who toucheth them toucheth the apple of their eye, and appeareth in the shape of an enemy. To bear the hatred and contradiction of the world, is not pleasing to me; notwithstanding the vehemency of desire which possesseth my heart, of doing some service in the world whilst I am a sojourner in it, and leaving it at my departure upon somewhat better terms for the peace and comfort of it, than I found it at my coming, swallows up much of that offensiveness and monstrousness of taste, wherewith otherwise the measure I receive from many would affect my soul. I have the advantage of old age, and of the sanctuary of the grave near at hand, to despise all enemies and avengers. I know that hard thoughts, and hard sayings, and hard writings, and hard dealings, and frowns, and pourings out of contempt and wrath, abide me. But none of these things move me, neither count I my life dear unto myself
, so that I may finish my course with joy, and the ministry which I have received of the Lord Jesus, to testify the gospel of the grace of God.' Farewell, good reader, in the Lord; let him have a friend's portion in thy prayers, who is willing to suffer the loss of all things for thy sake, that the truth of the Gospel may come with evidence and demonstration of the Spirit unto thee, and remain with thee. If the embracing of the truth before men keep thee from preferment on earth, it will most assuredly recompense thee seven-fold, yea, seventy times sevenfold in heaven.”