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course of his lectures to discuss the subject of baptism, and had conceived doubts concerning the scriptural authority for that of infants. A committee of his London brethren now waited upon him to discuss the grounds of his hesitancy, but they failed to remove his scruples. He then drew up, in Latin, a statement of his views on the subject, which he sent to the chairman of the Westminster assembly; but this document does not appear to have been treated with the attention it merited. He printed an apologetical statement of his views on the subject of baptism in 1646, after which he undertook the charge of a church at Bewdley. Here he held several public disputations on the subject of infant baptism with Baxter and others, and formed a separate church of persons holding his own sentiments, though he retained, at the same time, the parochial charge of Bewdley.

On the restoration, he appears to have readily fallen in with the new order of things, and wrote in support of the oath of supremacy, but he soon found the 'yoke of bondage' which the new government imposed upon all its clerical adherents, too heavy to be endured; and despairing of further usefulness in his clerical character, he laid down the ministry and retired into private life. He died at Salisbury in 1676. Mr Baxter bears honourable testimony to his worth, talents, and learning. He wrote and published a number of theological tracts, mostly on the subject of baptism.

Archbishop Sheldon.

BORN A.D. 1598.--DIED A.D. 1677.

Gilbert SHELDON, archbishop of Canterbury, was the youngest son of Roger Sheldon, a servant in the earl of Shrewsbury's household. He was born at Stanton in Staffordshire in 1598. In 1613, he was admitted a commoner of Trinity college, Oxford. In 1622, he was elected fellow of All Saints college, and about the same time entered into holy orders. He afterwards became domestic chaplain to the lord-keeper Coventry, who gave him a prebend in Gloucester cathedral.

The lord-keeper appears to have entertained considerable respect for Sheldon. He employed him in many affairs of importance, so that the young chaplain was soon marked out as a rising man. Laud presented him with the rectory of Newington, with which he held that of Ickford. in Bucks. In 1632, the king presented him to the vicarage of Hackney, in Middlesex ; and in 1635 he was elected warden of All Souls college. Chillingworth bad, about this time, begun to give offence to his dignified brethren by the sentiments which he held on the subject of toleration, and his views on some points of theology. The opportunity was a favourable one for Sheldon to display his orthodoxy, and, accordingly, he addressed several letters of remonstrance to his friend, which advanced him not a little in the esteem of those whom it was his interest to conciliate. The king now appointed him clerk of the closet, and one of his chaplains in ordinary. It was also contemplated to confer on him the office of master of the Savoy, but the political events of the day hindered the latter arrangement.

During the civil war, Sheldon adhered steadily to the royal cause, and was sent by Charles to attend his commissioners at the treaty of Uxbridge, where he argued very earnestly in favour of the church. In 1647-8, he was ejected from his wardenship by the parliamentary visitors, and placed under restraint at Oxford, in company with Dr Hammond and some others. Upon his release, he retired to Snelston, in Derbyshire, from whence he frequently remitted sums of money to the exiled prince.

On the restoration, Sheldon was made dean of the chapel royal ; and upon Bishop Juxon's translation to the see of Canterbury, the bishopric of London was bestowed upon him. He held the mastership of the Savoy in conjunction with his bishopric; and the famous conference between the episcopal and presbyterian clergy, concerning alterations to be made in the liturgy, was held at his house in the Savoy. On the death of Juxon, he was elevated to the archiepiscopal see in 1663. He died at Lambeth in 1677.

Sheldon was a prelate more distinguished for learning and munifi. cence than for piety. He mingled too much in the politics of the day to preserve his moral integrity unimpeached; though Neale goes too far when he affirms that he was a mere “ tool of the prerogative," and one “ who made a jest of religion any further than it was a political engine of state."

Archbishop Bramhall.

BORN A. D. 1593.-DIED A. D. 1663.

This prelate was of the family of the Bramhalls of Cheshire. He was born at Pontefract, in Yorkshire, about the year 1593.. He re. ceived his school-education at the place of his birth, and was removed from thence to Sidney college, Cambridge, in 1608. After taking his university degrees, he had a living given him in the city of York. A public disputation which he held in 1623, with a secular priest and a Jesuit, at North Allerton, introduced bim to the favourable regards of Matthews, archbishop of York, who made him his chaplain, and presented him with a prebend of York. He afterwards received a prebend of Rippon, and removed to that place, where he discharged the duties of sub-dean. In the year 1633, he obtained the archdeaconry of Meath, in Ireland. Next year, he was promoted to the bishopric of Londonderry, and made himself very instrumental in persualing the Irish episcopal church to adopt the thirty-nine articles of the English church. The active part which he took in supporting the royal cause, and the keenness with which he applied himself to the recovery of church lands, and the enlargement of the revenues of his church, soon brought our prelate into bad odour with the people. At last, he found it necessary to quit Londonderry and retire to the con. tiuent.

He went first to Hamburgh, and thence to Brussels. In 1648, he ventured to return to Ireland, but found the country too hot for him, and narrowly escaped with his life. On the restoration, his services were rewarded with the archbishopric of Armagh. He died in 1663. His works were published in one volume, folio, in 1677 The most curious and valuable of his writings, is one entitled, “The Catch ing of the Leviathan,' in which he argues with great force and acute ness against Hobbes' notions on liberty and necessity.

Thomas Manton, D.D.

BORN A. D. 1620.-DIED A. D. 1677.

This learned and eminent nonconformist was born at LaurenceLydiard, in Somersetshire, in 1620. His father and grandfather were both clergymen. He received his early education at Tiverton. In 1635, he was entered of Wadham college, Oxford, whence he removed, in 1639, to Harthall, where he took his degree of bachelor-in.arts. Wood says he was accounted in his college à hot-headed person;" if this be true, we can only say that he must have soon attained the fa. culty of self-command, for he bore a very different character throughout life, and when all eyes were upon him. After studying divinity, he was admitted into deacon's orders by Hall, bishop of Exeter, who predicted of the young divine that “ he would prove an extraordinary person."

His ministerial functions were exercised in various places ; but his first settlement was at Stoke. Newington, near London, where he continued seven years, and became much admired for his pulpit talents, and particularly his faculty of exposition. It was whilst he held the living of Stoke-Newington that he preached those lectures on the epistles of James and Jude, which are, even to this day, so highly esteemed. He was also occasionally called to preach before parliament.

Upon the death or resignation of Obadiah Sedgwick, Manton was presented to the living of Covent Garden by the earl of Bedford. Here he had a numerous auditory. In 1653, he was appointed one of the protector's chaplains ; about the same time he was nominated by parliament one of a committee of divines to draw up a scheme of fundamental doctrines, and also one of the triers, as they were called, whose office it was to examine and pronounce upon the qualifications of ministers.

Manton took an active part in promoting the restoration, and was one of the commissioners sent over to Breda. He was afterwards offered the deanery of Rochester, but declined the preferment. He was one of the ministers who were silenced on St Bartholomew's day, 1662. From this period his history, like that of his nonconforming brethren, is one of suffering and persecution. He was imprisoned for preaching, although patronised and esteemed by the duke of Bedford, and many of the first no'les of the land. His constitution, impaired by intense study, early gave way. He died in the 57th year of his age, on the 18th of October, 1677. His works were published in five volumes folio. They are very highly esteemed.

Theophilus Gale, M.A.

BORN A. D. 1628.---DIBD A. D. 1678.

THEOPHILUS GALEwas born in 1628, at King's Teignton, Devonshire, of which place bis father, Dr Theophilus Gale, was vicar. Dr Gale was also prebendary of Exeter. The subject of the present article was entered student of Magdalen college, Oxford, in 1647. In 1650 he was chosen fellow in preference to several of his seniors, and in 1652 he proceeded M. A. Here he was engaged as a tutor and a preacher, in both which capacities he became eminently successful. Bishop Hopkins, who was one of his pupils at the university, is said to have paid him always the greatest respect, notwithstanding his nonconformity. During his resid nce in the university, he formed the plan, and commenced the execution of his great work, entitled, • The Court of the Gentiles,' the leading object of which is to show that the theology, philology, and philosophy of the pagan nations were originally derived from the pages of inspiration. It is admitted by all competent judges to be a splendid monument of the learning and talents of the writer, and one of the most masterly productions which any age or any country has produced. In 1657, Mr Gale was made preacher at Winchester cathedral. He had then embraced the principles of the independents.

Upon the passing of the act of uniformity, Mr Gale suffered ejectment both from the cathedral of Winchester and from the fellowship of his college. This harsh measure threw him upon the necessity of again resorting to the labours of tuition. Lord Wharton received him into his family, and placed his two sons under his care. Soon after, he removed with his pupils to Caen, in Normandy, where he continued to reside for about two years. During his residence at Caen he formed the acquaintance, and enjoyed the friendship of the celebrated Bochart, who was then a pastor and professor in that town. In 1665, he returned to England, and after residing a few months with his pupils at their father's seat in Buckinghamshire, gave up the charge of their tuition. He then directed his course towards London, but as he approached it he beheld the city in flames. When he had left his native country for France, he had deposited the manuscripts of his great work, with many other papers, in the hands of a friend in the city. Upon his return to London, the first intelligence he received was, that the house of this friend had been consumed ; and, of course, his fears instantly presumed that all his papers, the results of so many years' hard study, had been destroyed. It appeared that his friend had removed most of his own goods, but had forgotten the valuable deposit which Mr Gale had committed to his custody. The cart containing what he deemed most valuable was about to remove from the door, while the desk containing Gales' manuscripts was left behind. But, fortunately for the world, and for Theophilus Gale, this friend thought he would make up the load by adding this very desk, which was lying in his counting-house, without at the time reflecting, that it was the most valuable package of the whole. Thus, by a mere incidental and momentary thought, was preserved froin destruction one of the most valuable and important treasures of learning. The first part of this great work was given to the public in 1669; the second part two years after; the third and fourth in 1677, and the addition to the 4th part in 1678. Such was the esteem which this work speedily acquired, that it was translated into Latin, and became extensively known on the continent, and was especially admired in Germany. During the progress of Mr Gale's great work, he published in 1676 another scarcely less learned, the object of which was to show in a compendious view, what was the nature of the ancient philosophy. Its title was · Philosophia Generalis in duas partes determinata ; una, de ortu et progressa Philosophiæ : 2, de habitibus intellectualibus : 3, de Philosophiæ objecto: Being written in Latin, this work excited less attention in England than on the continent, where it was received with eagerness, and read with much commendation. The design of the work was in a great measure identified with that of the Court of the Gentiles. It is however written with more conciseness, and is more especially intended for persons engaged in a regular course of philosophical inquiry.

While Mr Gale was engaged in the completion of these important works, although interdicted from the public exercise of his ministry, he yet engaged as an assistant to Vr John Rowe, who officiated as the pastor of a private congregation of nonconformists assembling in Hol. born. After he had completed his Court of the Gentiles, he applied, as a member of the university of Oxford, to Dr Fell, the vice-chancel. lor, for his license to its publication, which was readily granted. The first part then appeared, and being favourably received, the others, in due course, made their appearance.

His connexion in the ministry which Mr Gale bad formed with Mr Rowe, continued till the death of the latter, which took place in 1677. Previously, however, to this period, he bad commenced, and successfully conducted an academy at Sewington. In this retreat he was both enabled to prosecute his studies, and render himself useful by instilling the best principles into the minds of youth. Here, too, he was often visited by persons of distinction, and men of eminent learning. A short time before his death he published proposals for printing by subscription a Greek Lexicon to the New Testament, but was cut off early in the same year, before this work was brought to perfection. He died in his 50th year, about March, 1678, and was buried in Bunbill Fields.

The character of Mr Gale commanded universal reverence and esteem. Wood speaks of him as “a man of great reading; well conver. sant with the writings of the fathers and old philosophers, and a good metaphysician and school divine." But Mr Gale's reputation tested not upon his mere learning. He was a man of distinguished talents, of cheerful pitty, of unblemished character, and of attractive manners, His attachment to nonconformity was arvient and conscientious ; yet his charity towants those who difit red from bim was large and catholic. Of his devotedness to those views of truth which he had embraced, he gare proof in bequeathing his estate real and personal, in trust, for the education of students in his own principles. His library, which is said to have been well chosed, he le it to the promozion of useful learning in New England; and there, we believe, it is preserved to this day.

After the death of Mr John Roze, Vir Gele succeeded to the care


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