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of his church, and was assisted in his pastoral duties by Mr Samuel Lee. But the connexion subsisted only a few months, for Mr Gale was removed by death, and in the following year Mr Lee removed to Bignal, in Oxfordshire. Gale had acquired the reputation of an able minister of the gospel while a fellow of Magdalen college, and this character he maintained to the last. In the department of learning which he principally pursued, he lived and died almost without a rival. To the present day his great work commands the attention of the learned, and presents a rich treasury of information upon one of the most interesting inquiries that can engage the students of the higher philosophy. The eminent qualities, however, which adorned Mr Gale's Christian character, were his highest glory, and these to the present day continue to throw an imperishable lustre around his name. be considered as one of the brightest ornaments of independency, as well as one of the most illustrious of Christian scholars. His works are-1. The Court of the Gentiles. 2. The True Idea of Jansenism, both historic and dogmatic, 1669, 8vo. Dr Owen wrote a long preface to this book. 3. Theophilic, or a discourse of the saints' amity with God in Christ, 1671, 8vo. 4. The Life of Mr Trigosse, late minister of the gospel at Milar and Mabe, Cornwall, with his character, 1671, 8vo. 5. The Anatomy of Infidelity; or an Explication of the nature, causes, aggravations, and punishment of unbelief, 1672, 8vo. 6. A discourse of Christ's coming, and the influence of the expectation thereof, 1673, 8vo. 7. Idea Theologiæ, tam contemplativae, tam activæ, ad formam S. Scripturæ delineata, 1673, 12mo. 8. Wherein the love of the world is inconsistent with the love of God, a sermon on 1 John, ii. 15, in the supplement to the morning exercises at Cripplegate, 1674. 9. A Summary of the two Covenants prefixed to Mr Strong's discourse on the two Covenants, 1678.
Matthew Poole, M.A.
BORN A. D. 1624.--DIED A. D. 1679.
Matthew Poole, born in the year 1624, was the son of Francis Poole, Esq. of the city of York. He received an excellent grammareducation, most probably in his native city, and at the usual age was entered at Emanuel college, Cambridge, under the tuition of Dr John Worthington. During his college residence, he was distinguished by laborious study, by his grave demeanour, and scriptural knowledge. He does not appear to have proceeded M. A. till some years alter he entered upon the ministry. He most probably embraced the principles of non-conformity before he left the university, but without becoming a violent party man. He was yet in his youth when the national contentions and troubles commenced. But though he was decidedly opposed to episcopacy as then established, and of course embraced the side of the parliament, yet he continued at college diligently and zealously pursuing the niost important and useful studies. In the year 1648, however, and at the age of 24, he entered upon the regular duties of the ministry as the successor to Dr Tuckney-who was made vice-chancellor to the university of Cambridge--in the rectory of St Michael le Querne, in London. In the year 1654 he first appeared as author in a defence of the orthodox doctrine concerning the Holy Spirit, against the famous John Biddle. The work was entitled, “The Blasphemer slain by the sword of the Spirit,' &c. In the year 1657 Cromwell resigned the chancellorship of Canıbridge in favour of his son Richard, and in that act Mr Poole was incorporated M.A. of that university. The next year he formed and promoted the useful design of maintaining some divinity students of distinguished talents and piety, during their studies at both universities. This plan met with the approbation of the heads of houses, and in a short time the sum of £900 was contributed towards the object. Dr Sherlock, dean of St Pauls, was educated on this foundation. But the design was quashed by the restoration. In 1659, he addressed a printed letter to Lord Charles Fleetwood, relating to the critical juncture of affairs at that time. The same year he also published a work, entitled, "Quo Warranto,' a work designed to support the authority of an or. dained ministry, against a work, entitled, “The Preacher sent.' This work was written by the appointment of the provincial assembly at London. He continued in his rectory till the passing of the Bartholomew act, when he resigned his living, rather than conform against his conscience. During the fourteen years in which he was a parochial minister, he is described as having been a mnost faithful, diligent, and affectionate preacher : laborious in his studies to the highest degree, which his stupendous work, entitled, “Synopsis Criticorum,' in 5 vols. folio, amply testifies. This undertaking oecupied his attention for ten years, and is a monument, not only of his extensive reading, but of bis critical acumen, and sobriety of judgment. Mr Anthony Woodalways jealous of praising divines of Mr Poole's class——owas that it is an admirable and useful work, and adds, that “the author left behind him the character of a celebrated critic and casuist." His industry in compiling his great work is well worthy of record. He rose at three or four o'clock, took a raw egg at intervals, and kept on labouring all day till towards evening, when he usually sought for a short time the relaxation and enjoyment of society at some friend's house. He is represented by his biographer as being of an exceedingly merry disposition, though always within the limits of reason and innocence. His conversation is said to have been diverting and facetious in a very high degree. How great they must have been the restraints he exercised in so severe and continued a seclusion from society, and so close an application of mind to the very driest and dullest of studies—critieism! Mr Poole, however, appears to have enjoyed the happy art of both exciting and of regulating innocent mirth. He seems to have entertained a strict sense of what was decorous and of what was useful in faextious and eotertaining, or even in mirthful discourse ; but when he found that the strain was likely to be too long continued, or surpass the due limit, he would say, Now let us call for a reckoning,' and then would begin some very serious conversation, and endeavour thereby to leave upon his company some useful and valuable impression. It is highly probable, that the habit of passing his evenings with his friends and in so cheerful a manner, greatly contributed to relieve both body and mind from the ill effects of those serere and protracted studies in which he engaged. It happened more fortunately for Mr Poole than for most of his ejected brethren, that he had a provision of about £100 per annum, independent of his rectory, so that he was enabled to live in comfort and pursue his studies, without much inconvenience, after he became a non-conformist. He appears, however, to have once been, or to have thought himself, in danger of being murdered on account of his zeal against popery. In the year 1679, his name appeared in the list of persons who were to have been cut off, printed in the depositions of Titus Oates. Soon after, he was spending an evening at Mr Alderman Ashurst's, and was returning home with a Mr Chorley, who had gone with him for the sake of company; when coming near the narrow passage which leads from Clerkenwell to St John's court, they saw two men standing at the entrance ; one of whom, as Mr Poole approached, said to the other, " there he is ;“ upon which the other replied, “ let him alone, there is somebody with him.” As soon as they were passed, Mr Poole asked his friend if he had heard what had passed between the two inen ; and, upon his answering that he had, “Well," replied Mr Poole, “I had been murdered tonight had you not been with me." It is said, that prior to this incident, he had given not the slightest credit to what was said in Oates' depositions ; but he appears to have been greatly alarmed by this ocçurrence, for he soon after made up his mind to quit England, and accordingly removed to Holland, and fixed his residence at Amsterdam. He died the same year (1679), in the month of October, aged fifty-six. It was generally supposed he was poisoned, but the matter remained doubtful, and no discovery was ever made. His body was interred in the vault belonging to the English merchants in that city.
Mr Poole is chiefly known to posterity by his two works on the Bible. The one in Latin, bis ‘Synopsis,' the other, English Annotations. He was greatly encouraged in his Synopsis by the promised assistance of the great Dr Lightfoot, and the patronage both of Bishop Lloyd and Archbishop Tillotson. It first appeared in 1669, and following years. His · English Annotations' was in progress when he died, and of course was left in manus
uscript. He had completed it down to the 58th of Isaiah. The remainder was supplied by several other persons, viz. Mr Jackson, Dr Collins, Mr Hurst, Mr Cooper, Mr Vinke, Mr Mayo, Mr Veal, Mr Adams, Mr Barker, Mr Ob. Hughes, and Mr Howe. The whole appeared in 2 vols. fol. 1685. Both these works are of great value, and are in general request and bigh estimation among divines to the present day.
Mr Poole's other works are the following: 1. The Blasphemer slain with the sword of the Spirit ; 2. A model for maintaining students in the university ; 3. A Letter to Lord C. Fleetwood ; 4. Quo Warranto, &c. ; 5. Evangelical worship ; 6. Vox clamantis in deserto, respecting the ejection of the ministers ; 7. The Nullity of the Romish faith ; 8. A seasonable apology for religion ; 9. Four Sernions in the morning exercises, for 1660 ; 10. A Poem and two Epitaphs, on Mr Jer. Whitaker; 11. Two on the death of Mr R. Vines ; 12. Another on Mr Jacob Stock ; 13. A Preface to Sermons of Mr Nalton, with some account of his character; 14. Dialogues between a popish priest and an English protestant, &c.
Mr Poole bore throughout life the reputation of an amiable man, a devout and charitable Christian When his non-conformity exposed him to deprivation, and enforcéd upon him silence, he resigned himself patiently to his trial, and most usefully for the church of Christ, employ. ed his leisure in completing those important works, which will perpetuate his name among those of the ablest biblical critics.
Thomas Goodwin, B. D.
BORN A. D. 1600.-DIED A. D. 1679.
Thomas Goodwin was born at Rolesby in Norfolk, in 1600. At the age of thirteen he was sent to Cambridge, where he applied himself with great diligence to his studies, and, in 1619, became a fellow of Catherine-hall. Having taken orders, he was chosen, in 1628, to the lectureship at Trinity church ; in 1632, he was presented by the king to the vicarage of the same church; but becoming dissatisfied with the terms of conformity, he relinquished his university preferments, in 1634, and retired to Arnheim, in Holland, where he undertook the pastoral charge of a small independent church.
On the breaking out of the civil war, lie returned to England, where he was gladly received and patronized by the parliamentary party. Cromwell, in particular, was so highly pleased with his ministrations that he got him appointed president of Magdalen college, Oxford. Here he formed a church on congregational principles, of which Owen, Gale, and Charnock were members. He acquitted himself in the presidentship with great ability and unimpeachable fairness. On the Restoration he removed to London, whither many of his church fol. lowed him, and where he continued in the faithful discharge of his ministry till his death in February, 1679. He was author of numerous pieces of controversial and practical divinity, which were collected and published after his death, in five volumes, folio.
Stephen Charnock, B. D.
BORN A. D. 1628.-DIED A. D 1680.
Stephen CHARNOCK, the author of the celebrated discourses on the Existence and Attributes of God, was born in 1628. He studied successively at Cambridge and Oxford, and was senior proctor of the latter university in 1652. He accompanied Henry Cromwell to Ireland, in the quality of family chaplain. After the restoration he appears to have lived chiefly in London, occasionally visiting France and Holland. He died in 1680. His works were published after his death in two volumes, folio. Toplady says of his Discourses on the Attributes : “perspicuity and depth, metaphysical sublimity and evangelical simplicity, immense learning and plain but irrefragable reasoning, conspire to render that performance one of the most inestimable productions that ever did honour to the sanctified judgment and genius of a human being."
Richard Allein, M. A.
BORN A. D. 1611.-DIED A. D. 1681.
RICHARD Allein, a nonconformist minister, was the son of Mr Richard Allein, for fifty years minister of Dichiat, in Somersetshire. He was born in 1611, and at the age of sixteen entered as a commoner at St Alban's-hall, Oxford. On taking the degree of B. A., he removed to New Inn, and continued there till he took the degree of master. On taking orders he went to assist his father. In 1641, he became rector of Batcombe, Somersetshire. He and his father were constituted assistants to the parliamentary commissioners for ejecting scandalous and insufficient ministers. He continued minister of Batcombe till the passing of the act of uniformity, and is represented as a pious, diligent, and zealous instructor of his people. After his ejectment from his rectory, he preached privately in various places, and was befriended by a Mr More (an M.P.) Such was his great reputation, and the meekness of his deportment, that, though often summoned to appear before the magistrates, and severely reprimanded for preaching, yet they deemed it more prudent to connive at him than commit him to prison. After the passing of what is called the “five mile act,' he removed to Froom Selwood, and preached privately there till the day of his death, which took place Dec. 22d, 1681, in the 70th year of his age. He was so much respected, that the vicar of the parish in which he had lived preached a funeral sermon for him. A singular anecdote is told of one of his writings. The work was entitled, Vindiciæ Pietatis,' but a license could not be obtained for its publication. The book was, hower, printed and sold privately. The sale going on to a very considerable extent, the king's bookseller caused a seisure to be made of all the remaining copies. These were condemned and sent to the king's kitchen. The royal bookseller thinking it a promising, if not a fair way to turn a penny, contrived to redeem them for a trifle from the ignoble destruction into which he had been the instrument of bringing them. They were then bound up and sold in his own shop. The infamous transaction was however brought to light, and the bookseller compelled to beg pardon, upon his knees, at the council-table. The books were then remanded back to the kitchen, where they were ordered to be bished or rubbed over with an inky brush.
Mr Allein was the author of several other works of a religious nature, which have been highly esteemed and frequently republished.
John Owen, D.D.
BORN A. D. 1616.-DIED A. D. 1683.
John Owen, the second son of the Rev. Henry Owen, was born at Stadham, in Oxfordshire, in the year 1616. His father was for some time minister of Stadham, and afterwards rector of Harpsden, in the same county. He was a nonconformer, and accounted by his neigh,