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made him prebendary of Westminster in the room of Dr Bancroft, promoted to the see of London, and afterwards dean, in the place of Dr Goodman, deceased. The latter situation imposed upon him the superintendence of Westminster school, to which he paid very great attention. Hacket says, “ he was strict to charge our masters that they should give us lessons out of none but the most classical authors; that he did often supply the place both of head-schoolmaster and usher for the space of a whole week together, and gave us not an hour of loiter. ing time from morning to night; that he caused their exercises in prose and verse to be brought to him to examine their style and proficiency; that he never walked to Chiswick for his recreation without a brace of the young fry; and in that way-faring leisure, had a singular dexterity to fill these narrow vessels with a funnel. And, which was the greatest burden of his toil, sometimes thrice in a week, sometimes oftener, he sent for the uppermost scholars to his lodgings at night, and kept them with him from eight to eleven, unfolding to them the best rudiments of the Greek tongue, and the elements of the Hebrew grammar. And all this he did to boys without any compulsion of correction; nay, I never heard him utter so much as a word of austerity among us. Alas !” continues Hacket, “this is but an ivy leaf crept into the laurel of his immortal garland! This is that Andrews, the ointment of whose name is sweeter than spices. This is that celebrated bishop of Winton, whose learning King James admired above all his chaplains !"
James had such a high opinion of his abilities, that he employed him to answer Bellarmine's treatise against his own “Defence of the right of kings.' This he did with great spirit and judgment, in a treatise entitled “Tortura Torti,' which was printed at London in 1609. In 1605, the dean was promoted to the bishopric of Chichester, and in 1609, on the vacancy of Ely, he was advanced to that see. also nominated a privy-councillor. His promotion to the bishopric of Winchester and deanery of the king's chapel, took place in 1618. He continued in favour with Charles I., and died on the 25th of September, 1626.
All Bishop Andrews' contemporaries unite in giving him a high character for learning, benevolence, and suavity of manners.
His correspondence embraced the principal scholars of Europe : Casaubon, Cluverius, Vossius, Grotius, Peter du Moulin, Barclay, the author of Argenis, and Erpenius. Clarendon regrets that he was not appointed to the primacy on the death of Bancroft. Milton thought him worthy of his pen, and wrote a Latin elegy on his death. His works are very numerous. The principal are : 1st, A volume of sermons, published in 1628-31, containing ninety-six in all. 2d, Lectures on the Ten Commandments, with nineteen sermons on prayer. And, 3d, A collection of posthumous and orphan lectures, delivered at St Pauls and St Giles's. London, 1657, folio. His · Manual of Devotion, in Greek and Latin, has often been reprinted, and was translated by Dean Stanhope. Several of his minor pieces appeared in a collected form, in 4to, in 1629, with a dedication to King Charles from the pen of Laud.
DIED A. D. 1628.
George CARLETON, one of the most learned divines of the church of England in the 17th century, was the grandson of Thomas Carleton of Carleton-hall, in Cumberland. The celebrated Bernard Gilpin took upon himself the charge of his education, and was rewarded by witnessing the eminent success of his eleve at Oxford.
He took the degree of D. D. in 1613. In 1618, he was appointed bishop of Llandaff, and in the same year was sent by James, as one of his deputies, to the synod of Dort. He acquitted himself in this embassy much to the satisfaction of his colleagues, and was rewarded with the see of Norwich, on the death of Dr Harsnet in 1619. He died in 1628. Echard, Fuller, and Camden, speak of him in terms of high respect.
As we shall have frequent occasion, in the course of these ecclesiastical memoirs, to allude to the proceedings of the Synod of Dort, we shall here introduce a brief history of the origin of that famous coun. cil, from the biographical sketch which Mr Allport has prefixed to his translation of Bishop Davenant's Exposition of Colossians:-—"The States of Holland,” says Mr Allport, “had no sooner established their freedom from the Spanish yoke, than they were embroiled in theological contentions, which soon became intermingled with political cabals. The awful doctrine of the Divine decrees had been placed by the Belgic Confession and Catechism, in common with most of the other Creeds of the Reformed Churches, in the sacred and undefined sinplicity of the Seriptures. But, in the period immediately subsequent to the Reformation, the prying curiosity of men, anxious to be wise above what is written, proceeded to the attempt of accurate and precise explanation of what is evidently inexplicable. When, therefore, the supralapsarian scheme began to take place of the moderate system hitherto adopted, it was opposed, on the other side, by those who, in their eagerness to sustaiu the freedom of liuman will, dangerously entrenched upon the freedom of Divine grace.
“ These disputes, however, led to no important consequences, until, in 1591, they centered, as it were, in James Arminius, professor of divinity in the university of Leyden, a man who joined to unquestion. able piety and meekness of spirit, a clear and acute judgment; and who had obtained no slight eminence by the talent with which he had extricated the doctrines of Christianity from the dry and technical mode in which they had hitherto been stated and discussed. His celebrity placed him in a situation ill-suited to his habits and temper. As a pupil of Beza, he had embraced the extreme views to which that divine had carried the tenets advocated by the powerful pen of Calvin. It happened that one Coornhert had advanced some opinions, which, if not loose in themselves, were, at least, expressed in a very unguarded way. The ministers of Delft published a reply: in which the moderate and generally received sublapsarian hypothesis was sustained; which gave little less offence to the high Calvinists than did the heterodox language of Coornhert. Arminius, therefore, as the most talented divine of the day, was applied to, in order to take up the pen on both sides. On the one hand, his friend Martin Lydius, solicited him to vindicate the supralapsarian views of his former tutor, Beza, against the reply of the ministers; and, on the other, he was invited by the synod of Amsterdam, to defend this same reply against Coornhert. Placed in this remarkable situation, Arminius felt compelled to enter into an examination of the whole question, and was induced to change his sentiments, and to adopt that view of the Divine dispensations which now bears his name. His change, however, was very gradual; but appears to have been hastened by the publication, in Holland, of the Aurea Armilla, of Perkins, a very powerful supralapsarian divine of the Church of England. This alteration of opinion would not have led to any serious consequences, had Arminius, and the moderate part of the church, been left to themselves. The fundamental point of justification by faith, with the doctrine of assurance, and even of final perseverance, were held by him to his death ; and his exemplary piety and humility secured for him the attachment even of those who, when the dispute subsequently extended, became his most zealous opponents. The heat, however, of the less discreet part of the church, and the dangerous opinions of some who leaned to the Socinian and Pelagian beresies, (among whom may be designated Episcopius, Grotius, Limborch, &c.) being, as is no uncommon case at present, confounded with the tenets of Arminius, led to angry and uncharitable controversies, by which the peace of the church was grievously broken in upon. Still, the questions might have been amicably settled, but that, at the annual meetings of the synods in 1605, the class of Dort unwisely fanned the embers into a flame by transmitting the following grievance to the university of Leyden :-Inasmuch as rumours are heard that certain controversies liave arisen in the church and university of Leyden, concerning the doctrine of the reformed churches, this class has judged it necessary that the synod should deliberate respecting the safest and most speedy method of settling those controversies; that all the schisnis and causes of offence which spring out of them may seasonably be removed, and the union of the reformed churches preserved inviolate against the calumnies of adversaries.'
“ When this officious document reached Leyden, it gave offence to the moderate men of both sides; and met with the following reply from the professors there: that they wished the Dort class had, in this affair, acted with greater discretion, and in a more orderly manner; that, in their own opinion, there were more disputes among the students than was agreeable to them as professors; but, that among themselves, the professors of theology, no difference existed that could be considered as affecting, in the least, the fundamentals of doctrine; and that they would endeavour to diminish the disputes among the students. This was signed by Arminius, then rector of the university, by Gomarus, and others.
“ From the signature of Gomarus to this reply, it is evident, that his subsequent bitterness against the remonstrants at the synod of Dort, was the result of that acrimony which controversy so often engenders ; and that, at the period before us, he neither considered the views of his colleague as affecting the vitality of the faith, nor even interrupting their private friendship; although, unhappily, afterwards, he denounced the former, as upsetting the basis of the gospel ; spoke of the latter, when deceased, in terms the most harsh and uncharitable, and fomented those persecuting measures against his followers, which have rendered the name of the synod of Dort so odious.
“ 'This meddling interference of the class of Dort, having brought the whole question before the public, kindled a flame through the United Provinces. In the heat of this, in the year 1609, Arininius died, with a spirit completely broken by the calumny and rancour with which he was assailed. His followers abandoned many of the views which he held in common with Calvin, particularly on the vital point of justification. They became universally lax both in their opinions and in their society; and, as has too often been the case, aversion from Calvinism became a general bond of union. Having presented a strong remonstrance to the states-general in 1610, they obtained the name of Remonstrants, and their opponents having presented a counterremonstrance, were termed Contra-Remonstrants.
“ To settle these disputes, the Remonstrants demanded a general council of the Protestant churches. This the states refused; but it was at length determined by four out of seven of the United Provinces, that a national synod should be held at Dort-a town eminent for its hostility to the Arininians; and letters were sent to the French Huguenots, and to the different Protestant states of Germany and Switzerland, requesting them to send deputies to assist at the deliberations. Among others, the king of England, James I., was solicited in the same manner. And he, partly from political motives, and partly from his love of theological controversy, complied with the request, and selected for this purpose five of the most eminent theologians in his realm, viz. Dr George Carleton, bishop of Landaff, Dr Joseph Hall, dean of Worcester, Dr Davenant, Dr Samuel Ward, master of Sydney Sussex college, and Walter Balcanqual, a presbyter of the church of Scotland; and when Hall, on account of ill health, returned home, his place was filled by Dr Goad, precentor of St Paul's, and chaplain to the primate, Abbot."
Among Carleton's works are : “Heroici Characteres,' published at Oxford in 1603 ; • Titles examined,' Lond. 1606 ; Jurisdiction regal, episcopal, and papal,' Lond. 1610, 4to. ; Astrologimania,' Lond. 1624; • Vita B. Gilpini,' Lond. 1626 ; and several sermons and letters. He had also a hand in the Dutch Annotations.
DIED CIRC. A. D. 1629.
Henry Ainsworth, an eminent biblical commentator, and nonconforming divine, flourished at the latter end of the 16th and beginning of the 17th centuries. The time and place of his birth are un. known. Adopting the views of the Brownists, he shared in the persecutions to which they were subjected in Elizabeth's reign; and to avoid the troubles which harassed his party, retired to Holland, where, in
conjunction with one of his brethren, he became pastor of an inde· pendent congregation at Amsterdam. On account of some differences with his people, he left them, and went to Ireland, but soon after returned again to Holland, where he remained till his death, concerning which a singular circumstance is related. Ainsworth having picked up in the street a valuable diamond, advertised it, and found the owner to be a wealthy Jew. The Jew offered him any recompense he might demand, but Ainsworth would accept of no acknowledgnient, and only requested in return that the Jew would obtain for him a conference with some learned rabbis on the prophecies of the Old Testament concerning the Messiah. The Jew promised this, but not being able to make good his engagement, is said, through shame or vexation, or from some other motive which does not appear, to have poisoned Ainsworth. This probably happened about the year 1629. Ainsworth was a man of immense biblical learning, and has written very erudite Annotations' on the Pentateuch and Psalms, which were reprinted together, in folio, in 1627 and 1639. He also wrote some minor pieces, chiefly referring to the controversies of the time, and now all forgotten, except, perhaps, his · Arrow against Idolatry.' Heylin—who, however, was no friend to sectaries—asserts, that Ainsworth maintained a violent dispute with Broughton, one of his brethren, on the question, • Whether the colour of Aaron's linen ephod was blue or green' ?!
BORN A. D. 1549,-DIED A. D. 1630.
Robert Brown, born in 1549, son of Anthony Brown, Esq. of Folthorp, Rutlandshire, was descended from an ancient and honourable family, and was nearly related to the lord-treasurer Cecil. ceived his education at Corpus Christi college, Cambridge, and appears to have commenced his career as a clergyman. He was a preacher at Bennet church, and was highly esteemed forhis oratory. Prior to the year 1580, he had been a schoolmaster in Southwark, and a lecturer at Islington. His restless disposition made him uneasy in these situations, and about 1580 be openly attacked the order and discipline of the established church.
Soon after this period we find him settled at Norwich, where he gained great influence in a Dutch church formed in that city. He persuaded many of its members to embrace bis views of church government. Growing bold by his success, he formed a distinct church upon democratical principles. His proceedings soon attracted the attention of Dr Freake, bishop of Norwich, who committed him to the custody of the sheriff. He had, however, extensively propagated his opinions, and bad enlisted one Richard Harrison in the same cause, by whose assistance several churches upon Brownist principles were formed in different parts of the country. Through the influence of his relative, the lord-treasurer, he was released from prison. But in the year 1582, a book appeared entitled “The Life and Manners of true Christians,' to which is prefixed · A treatise of reformation without tarrying
"Neale.- Biog. Brit.-Heylin's Hist.