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every where proving húmself adequate M. D'Acosta had it in contemplation to the task he had undertaken. As a to remit to Paris, for publication, variwriter, he appears far superior, in ous papers on the subject of Asiatic spirit, to any of his countrymen; a literature, but Ars longa, Vita brevis ; sound judgment, combined with a lively while devoting the greatest attention and brilliant imagination; the art of to the situation which he had gained arranging his ideas in a logical order; and so well deserved, while investidefinitions laid down, with precision gating the resources and riches of his and perspicuity, produce on the read- nation in antiquarian speculations, er's mind a favourable impression of riches which he well knew how to aphis taste as an author. On the sub- preciate and turn to account, his enerject of style, he was somewhat at vari- gies were suddenly repressed, and he ance with established opinion, ever was snatched away, by death, in the preferring the warm interest of original career of his valuable labours, from an conceptions, and the life of description, affectionate spouse and six children, to the rules of euphony. In poetry, he whose education he was superinter.dsported some light pieces, both in ing. His portfolio, no doubt, contains French and English, and his efforts be- a variety of curious notes and learned speak a mind raised above the level of researches, of the merits of which we the multitude. In his epistolary cor- need be at no loss to form a general respondence, the subjects were of a na- judgment. He had long enjoyed leiture to be deserving of notice, and the sure for tlie prosecution of his learned style was marked with grace and ease. enquiries, was habituated to close and He wrote frequently to Messrs. accurate observation; and, to a mass Langles and G. Thouin, and trans- of miscellaneous intelligence, he addmitted to the latter a collection of ed a familiar acquaintance with the plants and seeds from Hindoostan, Greek, Latin, French, Portuguese, for the service of the Jardin des Plantes Spanish, English, Persian, Sanscrit, at Paris.
Bengal, and Hindoostanee languages. As Chandernagore was not provided An acquaintance with M. D'Acosta with the means of education for his proved a source of gratification and children, (he having employed himself pleasure to various characters respecttherein,) he removed, towards the latter able in the political and literary world ; end of the year 1816, to Calcutta, the sweetness of his temper, the genwhere he purchased a two-third share tleness and amenity of his manners, of the office and Gazette, known by the awakened agreeable and lively sensaname of the Times, which, from 1812, tions in their minds. I have heard it bad succeeded to the Telegraph. He repeated by those who knew him well, soon became the sole conductor of it, that it was impossible to be much in and this procured him a house to live his company without being wiser and in, and 200 rupees per month, exclu- better; his conversation opened new sive of his benefit in it as a concern. and important views on almost every Under bis management, the paper was subject that a versatile mind could successful, for no subject could be possess. chosen whereon his thoughts and words The premature death of M. D'Acosta were not apposite and novel. In lite- is regretted the more from this circumrary criticism, he combated erroneous stance, that, had his life been proopinions with rhetoric and reasoning, longed, he would have been one of the rather than with ridicule and rude most active and useful correspondents pleasantry.
of the new Asiatic Society which has It was about that time that M. Gre- been recently founded at Paris. This goire received from him a very inter- establishment is under the superinesting notice relative to Ramohun tendance of Messrs. Sylvestre de Roy, a Bramin of Calcutta, who seems Sacy, de Lasteyrie, Abel Remuzat, to have created a sort of schism among Chezy, Morenas, Fauriel, &c. and the Hindoos. This notice was inserted which held its first public meeting on in La Chronique Religieuse, of Paris, the Ist of April, 1822, in the hall of the and was much read by those to whom Society of Encouragement for National subjects of that nature are acceptable. Industry.
NEW MUSIC AND THE DRAMA.
Part the Third of “ Judah," an Oratorio, has in consequence been observed by com
in Three Parts; selected and com- posers. The slightest consideration will, posed by Wm. Gardiner, of Leicester. however, be sufficient to show, that this Il. Is.
dramatic character of the Oratorio is alto. THIS voluminous and elaborate gether ideal ; that its interest depends in
no degree on the progress of the action, at its close ; and we congratulate Mr, of the music; and that the subject is of no Gardiner on his successful perform- other importance than as an index of the ance of a task that required no ordi- sentiment or action intended to be expresspary exertions of ability, science, and ed. Instead, therefore, of confining himself industry. Previous to entering on to any single event of sacred history, wlich the consideration of the Part now the great variety of his materials rendered before us, we will give our readers a nearly impossible, the author has selected, general view of the origin, plan, and at pleasure, from all parts of the caron of execution of the work; and then, by the Old Testament, such passages as apadding to the remarks we made on its peared to him most analogous in sublimity, two former portions, a summary dis: pathus, or beauty, to the character of the quisition on the contents of the present He has thus embraced most of the prin
music to wliich they were to be applied. volume, enable them to judge how far cipal events recorded in the Jewish Scripthe ingenious author, selector, and tures, commencing with the history of adapter, has realised his own ideas. Abraham, and terminating in a proplietic In presenting this illustration, we view of the Millennium; and has designated shall avail ourselves of much of Mr. luis work by the comprehensive, though Gardiner's own language, as we find indefinite, tiile of“ Zudah,” it in the preface which he has sub- From this view of the nature and joined to this part of the publication ; extent of Mr. Gardiner's work, our because generally, and in this instance readers will perceive how arduous particularly, no expressions can better was the task he undertook. It is elucidate a writer's meaning than almost needless to observe, that, those which he himself has employed. however great was his dependance
lo presenting this oratorio to the pub- on the merit of the masters to whose lic, (says Mr. Gardiner,) the author feels compositions his judgment directed it necessary to give some explanation of his attention, the ingenious labour still its plan and origin. The important part devolved upon him, not only of arassigned to music in the services of the ranging the chorussos, supplying many Roman Catholic Church is well known; and a large portion of the compositions of of tho accompaniments, and furnishing the great wasters of the art were design. much and various connecting matter; ed for this specific purpose. These com- but of composing all the recitatives, positions, though distinguished by the and most of the songs; and that, by same marks of genius as appear in their consequence, only considerable talent, other works, have, for the most part, re- and enlightened by science, stimulated mained unknown in this country, and it to action by the most laudable ambiwas from a desire to rescue them from this tion, could accomplish an undertaking unmerited neglect, that the author under- of such magnitude. In the pagés now took the arrangement of the Sacred Melo- under review, we find eight chorusses, dies. While engaged on that work, most and nine airs, besides two quartetts, of the pieces here spoken of came under bis view; but, as many of them were often recitatives, and an overture in one too elaborate a kind for admission there,
movement, the subject of which is it became a desideratum with him to find taken from Haydn. For the music of some mode in which they could be pre- these, we find the same great authors sented to the British public, without in- resorted to, the choicest of whose jury to their original character. The works supplied the substance of the Oratorio, from its elevated style and close former portions of this Oratorio; and alliance with this species of music, patu- while equal judgment is displayed in rally suggested itself as the most eligible the selection,-especially in the music forin; but, iv adopting it, the author has given to the chorusses, "O happy, found it necessary to deviate in sonie de happy Solyma!" from Mozart; “Glory gree from the usual plan of these compo- to God," from Beethoven; “Glorily sitious. Music of this description is considered as a sort of sacred drama; and a
the great Jehovah," from Haydn ; and certain limitation, as to subject at least, “Sound aloud Jehovah's name ” from
the same composer. Of the airs, some in this Fantasia are of a cast both to are strikingly beautiful; and many of surprise and please. The freedom the recitatives (the whole of which are and volatility with which they succeed by Mr. Gardiner,) are characterized each other, announce a ready invenby much truth and force of expres- tion, and an easy and unembarrassed sion; while those that are accompanied adroitness in giving it exercise. The display extraordinary skill in instru- more deliberate and sober passages mental arrangement. On the whole, with which the roulades or flights are when we consider the extent, the relieved, have also their claim to our grandeur, and the beauty of this commendatory notice, inasmuch as assemblage of sacred music, we can- they are well imagined, and internot but feel that great praise is due spersed with judgment. The air on to its author and compiler; and that which the second movement is foundin the production of the Oratorio of ed is smooth, graceful, and attractive. Judah, he has earned a degree of cre- The variations are in the most agile dit that raises him to high distinction style of execution, and calculated to among the cultivators of the harmonic exhibit the powers of the most capable art.
performer. The greatest merit of the La Curiosité, a favorite Divertimento piano-forte accompaniment is, that it for the Piano-forte; composed by M. is properly kept under, and not sufferSchengen. 2s.6d.
ed to cover or disturb the more delicate This little publication comprehends passages of the principal. three movements; the first of which “Sul Margine d’un Rio,” arranged with (a pastorale andante,) forms the intro- Variations for the Piano-forie; comduction; and the second, a march in posed by W. P.R. Cope. 3s. common time of four crotchets, is fol. This air and its new variations are lowed by a rondo in common time of ushered in by an introduzione, Allegro two crotchets. These preserve an con Spirito, into which Mr. Cope has agreeable contrast to each other, and, infused much of that spirit and bustle rising in cheerfulness and animation, so well qualified to improve the effect create an interest that increases as of the delicate melody to which it they proceed, and begets the wish that leads us. The variations (nine in the piece were longer. However well number,) are conceived with taste, we may think of the rural softness of and conducted throughout with an the introduction, and the simple bold- eye to the matter on which they are ness of the march, we are still more founded ; and not only is the subject pleased with the light, tripping, fan- never lost sight of, but its beauties are tastic subject of the rondo; and feel often advantageously set off by the talled upon, by the prettiness and good perfect appropriateness of the ornamanagement of the whole composition, ments. Numerous as are the pianoto give it the sanction of our com- forte exercises of this description, the mendation.
present effort, we think, merits a disFantasia and Air, with Variations for tinguished place among them, and
the Flute, with an Accompaniment will not prove less pleasing to the culfor the Piano-forte; composed by T. tivated ear than useful to the juvenilo Tulou. 45.
finger. The excursions of fancy displayed
PROCEEDINGS OF PUBLIC SOCIETIES.
LONDON HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. lateral branches. Both these defects On the Culture of the Pear Tree ; by are, however, I have good reason to
T. A. KNIGHT, Esq. F R.S. &c. believe, the result of improper ma
VE pear-tree exercises the pa- nagement; for I have lately succeeded longer period, before it affords fruit, trees very productive in every part, than any other grafted tree which finds and my young trees have almost a place in our gardens; and, though it always afforded fruit the second year is subsequently very long-lived, it ge- after being grafted, and none have nerally, when trained to a wall, be- remained barren beyond the third comes in a few years unproductive of year. fruit, except at the extremities of its In detailing the mode of pruning
and culture I have adopted, I shall serted, and all afforded fruit, and probably more easily render myself almost in equal abundance. By this intelligible, by describing accurately mode of training, the bearing-branches, the management of a single tree of being small and short, may be changed each.
every three or four years, till the tree An old St. Germain pear-tree, of the is a century old, without the loss of a spurious kind, had been trained, in the single crop; and the central part, fan form, against a north-west wall in which is unproductive in every other my garden, and the central branches, mode of training, becomes the most as usually happens in old trees thus fruitful. When a tree, thus trained, trained, had long reached the top of has perfectly covered the wall, it will the wall, and had become wholly un- have taken very nearly the form reproductive. The other branches af- commended by me in the Horticul. forded but very little fruit, and that tural Transactions of 1808, except never acquiring maturity, was conse- that the small branches necessarily quently of no value; so that it was pass down behind the large. I prorecessary to change the variety, as ceed to the management of young well as to render the tree productive. trees. To attain these purposes, every
A young pear-stock, which had two branch, which did not want at least lateral branches upon each side, and twenty degrees of being perpendicu- was about six feet high, was planted lar, was taken out at its base; and against a wall early in the spring of the spurs upon every other branch, 1810; and it was grafted in each of its which I intended to retain, were taken lateral branches, two of which sprang off closely with the saw and chisel. out of the stem about four feet from Into these branches, at their subdiri- the ground, and the others at its sumsions, grafts were inserted at different mit, in the following year. The shoots distances from the root, and some so these grafts produced, when about a near the extremities of the branches, foot long, were trained downwards, as that the tree extended as widely in in the preceding experiment, the unthe autumn, after it was grafted, as it dermost nearly perpendicularly, and did in the preceding year. The grafts, the uppermost just below the horizonwere also so disposed, that every part tal line, placing them at such disof the space the tree previously cover- tances, that the leaves of one shoot ed was equally well supplied with did not at all shade those of another. young wood.
In the next year, the same mode of As soon in the succeeding summer training was continued; and in the as the young shoots had attained suf- following, that is the last year, I obficient length, they were trained almost tained an abundant crop of fruit, and perpendicularly downwards, between the tree is again heavily loaded with the larger branches and the wall to blossoms. which they were nailed. The most This mode of training was first apperpendicular remaining branch upon plied to the Aston-town pear, which cach side was grafted about four feet rarely produces fruit till six or seven below the top of the wall, which is years after the trees have been grafttwelve feet high; and the young shoots, ed; and from this variety, and the which the grafts upon these afforded, Colmar, I have not obtained fruit till were trained inwards, and bent down the grafts have been three years old. to occupy the space from which the old central branches had been taken THE WERNERIAN NATURAL HISTORY away, and therefore very little vacant
SOCIETY. space any where remained in the end The following geological remarks on of the first autumy. A few blossoms, the rock of Gibraltar and the adjacent but not any fruit, were produced by country, were lately read to this soseveral of the grafts in the succeeding ciety by Mr. John Baird. spring; but in the following year, and The rock of Gibraltar is a huge insusubsequently, I have had abundant lated mass of limestone, surrounded on crops, equally dispersed over every three sides by the sea, and on the part of the tree; and I have scarcely fourth by a low sandy tract of land ever seen such an exuberance of blos- called the Neutral Ground, by which som as this tree presents in the pre- it is connected with the continent of sent spring (1813). Grafts of eight Spain. It is probable, I think, that different kinds of pears had been in- this low neck of land, which in general rises but a few feet above the level of and inclining to the south-west at an the bay, has at one time been covered angle of 60° or 70°. The other prinej. by the sea; leaving the Rock of Gibral- pal variety is a conglomerate or brectar an abrupt rocky island mass a few ciated limestone, forined of the debris miles from the main land of Spain. of the former, connected by a red cal
· The north and east sides of this rock careous basis, and wrapping round the present an almost perpendicular steep- other central mass. This conglomerate ness from top to bottom. The west variety appears to be still forming on side slopes at about an average angle the hill. Besides these, there occur of 45°. T'he south end or side of the two beds of a flinty slate rock, both rock is at first quite perpendicular, very much decayed, and one of them and then falls gradually down towards containing numerous round and angaEuropa Point. The town is built ncar lar pieces of limestone. These beds the foot of the west side of the rock. appeared to be contained in the older The length of the rock from north to solid limestone, and to run in strata south may be about 2 miles ; its conformable to it. breadth from west to east from half a At the foot of the hill, the sole rock mile to above a mile ; and its height visible is the conglomerate limestone, about 1000 feet above the level of the which occurs in great abundance, and sea. The top of the rock is a long nar- forming smail bills. The imbedded row ridge, running north and south, masses are often of a very large size. the west side sloping down to the town The basis is a red, coarse, calcareous and bay; the east side, from its rugged, cement, or a calcareous tuff, more perpendicular front, almost inducing or less hard, and often intermixed the opinion, that Gibraltar Rock, as it with round concretions of calcareous now exists, is only the half of a largo sinter. At the foot of the hill the hill, the cast side of which, in some rock is often almost entirely composed great convulsion of nature, has been of this calcareous iuff. As we ascend torn asunder from the other, and pre- the hill, this conglomerate rock decipitated into the Mediterranean. creases in quantity, the imbedded
The view from the top of the Rock of masses become smaller, and the conGibraltar, the Mount Calpe of old, in a necting basis less abundant, more comclear day, is most magnificent. To pact, finer, and of a lighter colour. the east, the Mediterranean stretches The imbedded masses, wbich are of out before us as far as the eye can every shape, are undoubtedly broken reach; and on either side its lofty portions of the solid limestone nucleus. shores, the mountainous coast of Africa When we have ascended above twoon the one hand, aud, on the other, the thirds of the hill, this conglomerate enmore beautiful, perhaps, but scarcely crusts the interior mass to the depth less hilly coast of Europe, both gradu. only of a few inches, and a little ally receding from each other, to form, higher up almost entirely disappears, as it were, a broader basin for the when the solid limestone forms the Mediterranean; the village of St. whole upper part of the hill. Roch, to the north, beautifully situated That such is the structure of Gibralon the top of a gently sloping hill; the tar Rock, a central mass of old and Bay of Gibraltar, and town of Alge- solid limestone, covered to various ziras to the west, and to the south the depths by a newly formed conglosister pillar, the lofty Mount Abyla, merate, such as has been described, and her neighbouring mountains. appears, from the examination of those
The Rock of Gibraltar is composed parts of the hill through which roads of limestone, of which there are two have been cut in the rock, of those principal varieties, one forming the long arches cut through both the congreat mass of the hill, hard, line- glomerate and solid limestone, and in grained, with a splintery or conchoidal particular of thosc amazing excavafracture, possessing considerable Jus- tions, as they are called, planted with tre, and generally of a light-grey co- cannon, often running to a great exlour, sometimes also dark, sometimes tent, and parallel to the exteriorsurface nearly white, and in one part of the hill, of the hill, from which they extend into where it is quarried as a marble, oc- the rock from twenty to fifty feet, cutting curring beautifully variegated. This in various places through the conglolimestone is stratified, and near the top merate into the solid mass. Partly of the hill, as is well seen, the strata run owing to the darkness in these long from nearly north-east 10 south-west, arches, and from atlier circumstances,