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For the Monthly Magazine.
As to labourers, properly so called, OBJECTIONS 10 TALAVERA'S PLAN of especially agricultural ones, how can
RELIEF to the AGRICULTURAL and they possibly sufler a diminution of other INDUSTRIOUS CLASSES ; and the one-half of their wages without a corPRINCIPLE of a CORN-RENT recom- responding increase of poor's rates? mended.
to say nothing of the misery, and enTHE disease of the body politic is dangering of the public peace, which ing to allow of rash and empirical re- sion. Hard-hearted and inconsiderate medies being applied without danger parson-justices, like some in Wiltof a dissolution; under this description shire, may have studied and proposed of remedy, I cannot avoid placing the to allow the very minimum of food to proposal made in the commencing the poor, which can keep soul and paragraph of Talavera's letter in your body together; but these projects will October number, page 226,—I mean assuredly fail. As to the wages of with regard to the sweeping enact- common artizans and others in great pient by which he proposes to lower towns, whom I intended to distinguish by one-half all wages and the prices of above from labourers, supposing that corn. What! after corn, and most steady industry, sobriety, and frugality, uther agricultural products, are al- were generally exercised by these, and ready lowered far more than one-half by their families, corresponding with in price, and the funds, tolls, debts, or exceeding those habits in the counrents of houses, and the salaries and try labourers, it might in such case pensions of public servants, have very seem, that their pay might suffer a rarely suffered any diminution, (the great diminution; but, supposing that paying off the five per cents. being the difficulty, next to a miracle, could merely what was originally bargained be effected, of suddenly reforming the for, and always expected,) propose habits of the “Saint Monday" gin and now to treat these claims all alike, porter swilling artizans and some laand reduce them one-half in amount: bourers of towns, what in such case was ever so unjust and monstrous a would become of the revenue? And proposition made?
how, and with the other proposed roI have not included rents of lands ductions, could even one-half of the in the enumeration above, because it present enormous funded interest, sais well known to every one sufficiently laries, pensions, &c. continue to be competent to put pen to paper on the paid? sabject, that these have suffered dimi- The proposed exemption of the nation, in many cases almost to anni- fundholders, in Talavera's second pahilation; and that, except in a compa- ragraph, I do not compreliend: how, ratively few instances, of rich land also, the Bank's own bullion, accumucheaply rented, no profits accrue to lated in its own coflers, for payment the farmer, (after paying his tithes, of its promissory notes, held by inditaxes, rates, tradesmen, labourers, &c. viduals, can “become disposable naand taking the usual interest for his tional property," I cannot conceive. capital employed and risked, whereon Jf agricultural produce could be to subsist himself and family,) out of supposed to sell at half 'its present which any rent can be paid to the price, which would be about two shillandlord; and, although a great portion lings per bushel for wheat, on the avcof landlords may not yet have mate- rage of all the farmer's sales,-well rially lessened their claims, or abated might the manufacturer and the meror forgiven arrears, and settled with chant be capable of opening new their tenants, yet it must be evident channels of export, and find "a remuthat arrears of rent are, in such cases, nerating price abroad;" but what, in cruelly accumulating, which can only such case, would become of the whole be discharged by a sacrifice of the agricultural population? farmer's capital, or more frequently The remedies proposed by Talavera now of his very means of subsistence, would infallibly bring upon us the his capital being gone already; of “evil day” which he thinks to avert; which the shockingly numerous sales but, whether with sufficient knowledge of farmers' entire stock and furniture, of his subject, your readers must which fill the advertisement-columns of judge; as they will also on the promust provincial newspapers, are me- priety of the suggestions with which lancholy proofs.
í sball now conclude, viz.—That as MONTHLY Mag, No. 375.
the chief evils affecting the industri- have been very prevalent in Sussex ous classes, and those under contracts during the present summer solstice. for fixed money-payments, arise from 17.—Travelling between Cathe altered value of the national mo- lais and Boulogne, I noticed millions ney; it is the principle of a corn-rent, of butterflies, covering the fields for or reverting to wheat as a standard, many miles: I never before witnessed by which to measure and estimate the such a prodigious quantity of them. original value of, and by which to re- Cichorium intybus common by all the duce now these monied engagements, road-sides. which can alone cure these evils: but,
28.-Ascended Mount Jura, tinfortunately, no authentic and gene- where I noticed Campanula rotundifolia ral tables of averages exist, which and Campanula alpina; the former very might show the averages of one of two, abundant. of three, &c. years' prices of wheat, as
29.-A remarkable instance recorded weekly in the London Ga- occurred on this and the two following zette, ending with and including cach days of the coincidence of violent and weekly return therein; although such mischievous storms of thunder and proposed tables have, some time ago, lightning. This evening one of the and again lately, been described most violent storms ever witnessed and strongly recommended by a sen- occurred as I was passing between sible writer in the Farmer's Journal Gex and Noyon, about 6 P.M.* newspaper. BRITANNJA.
30. A repetition of violent St. Pancras; Oct. 10.
storms to-day followed the lodgment
of clouds on the tops of the mountains For the Monthly Magazine. of Savoy: several persons were killed, EXTRACTS from a JOURNAL of meteo- and vineyards destroyed. The ther
ROLOGY and NATURAL HISTORY kept at mometer stood at 84o at Lausanne at HARTFIELD, for the purpose of record- mid-day. I have accounts, which I ing Facts which illustrate the PROG- hope shortly to publish, of violent Nostics of ATMOSPHERIC CHANGES, storms which occurred at the same and the INFLUENCE of PECULIARITIES time in various parts of Europe, of WEATHER ON ANIMAL and vege- which confirms an opinion I have long
entertained of the simultaneous 00 By T. FORSTER, M.B. F.L.S.
currence of similar phenomena in dis. Member of the Astronomical Society of London, &c. tant parts of the world. [Dr. T. Forster proposes to communicate Aug. 6.— I noticed to-day that small
this Journal to us monthly, each number field-mico were particularly numerous including the period between the 20 all along the road-side through Alsace, days of the two foregoing months. Few from Båle to Colmar, and thence to observations having been made during Strasbourg. I noticed the stork, Cicothe last month, the present article contains the observations made since last Hirundo apus, seen at Strasbourg.
nia alba, on the wing. The last swift, Midsummer, including those made du
15.-Butomus umbellatus and ring a tour on the continent.]
Senecio paludosus very common, and J NE. vind. Ther. 67 ouderbascum in oloanei.
UNE 20, 1822. — Cloudy, with in flower, by the sides of the canals in virgatum, V. thapsus, and V. lychnitis,
Sept. 18.-Falling stars common toin flower.
night; they foreboded wind from the 22.--Scabiosa atropurpurea in east, which followed on the 19th. flower. The sky exhibited to-day a Oct. 17—The last swallow, Hirundo vast variety of beautiful modifications rustica, seen. of cloud; the atmosphere was what is usually termed highly electrified, and shower of rain and bail. Érysipelas
19. — An unusually violent the clouds very red at sun-set. Ther. prevails much, particularly among the 73°; bar. 30:00.
lower classes of people. 23.-The phenomena of yes- Hartwell ; Oct. 21. terday were followed to-day by very N.B.-This Journal will be continued hot weather, Lilium bulbiferum in daily, with more copious observations, beblow.
ginning with the 20th of October. July 9.-A soft air and cloudy day, followed by rain. I noticed among of this storm, and those which occurred
I have already published an account patients the prevalence of vertigo, coincidentally, and therefore I was not and other head-diseases; indeed they minute in my account in this Journal.
To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. sive breweries or distilleries; but SIR,
small proprietors seldom breed more Thesbandry, obligingty, furnished THE following account of German pigs than for their home consumption.
System of Management at Harbké. at my request by the Count Veltheim “This estate contains about 3000 de Harbké, together with particulars German acres of arable fields and of the stock and management of his meadows, and 4000 acres of woodestate at Harbké, held in hand, I land and pasture; on which are now should have sent to the Magazine employed ten sets of working horses, some time since, but I had mislaid the four in a team. These are usually Count's letter. J. LAWRENCE. purchased, rising two years old, in Somer's Town ; Sept. 11:
Hanover, and are chiefly the produce
of English Yorkshire half-bred stal* Our plan of cultivation is, with lions. They are a large-sized, powervery few exceptions, and under cer- ful, and active, breed of horses, endowtain modifications, dependant on localed with that degree of speed required circumstances; the same with the an- by the present improved state of cient Roman system, or the three-field agriculture. culture,-a method which in this coun- “The cattle consist of 150 head, of try is equally adapted to both large the Swiss breed, from the canton of and small estates. The first field, call- Freyburg. Their use consists in the ed winter-field, is sown with rye and produce of the dairy, and of beef and wheat, and usually with equal portions veal for the household; but oxen are of both sorts of corn.
not employed in tilling the ground. "The seeond field, called the sum- The flocks of Merino sheep amount mer-field, is sown with barley and oats. to 2000 head. of the third field, called the fallow- Hogs 200, produced by a cross field, two-thirds are sown with herbs, of large English boars with the Gerligumes, and roots,-such as clover, man sows. The English boars have lucerne, &c. pease, vetches, beans, long pendulous ears, are very large, lentils, cabbage, turnips, and pota- but
falten and propagate slowly. The toes. The remaining third of the falcrossed breed is free from several of low-field, in course, the ninth part of those defects, and at the same time the whole arable ground, lies untilled, retains some of the superior qualities
in the English phrase, a naked fal- of the English boar. low,) and affords pasture for the sheep, “ The whole of this estate is mawhich feed on it during the summer, naged, under my own superintendance, as they do likewise on the wood pas- by one principal and two subordinate tures. There is, moreover, a propor- stewards, having under their direction tional part of the whole estate appro- an adequate number of servants and priated to permanent meadows. day-labourers. There is moreover
“On almost all the large estates in upon the domain a very considerable our parts, the whole stock of cattle is brewery, with brick and tile kilns, &c. fed throughout the year in the yards Also a small stud of high-bred horses, of the stables; during the summer oriental and English, and eight brood with clover, lucerne, &c.; the winter, mares. with roots and greens, as turnips, po- “ It may be necessary to advert to a tatoes, cabbages, and clover-hay. The branch of rural administration not poorer husbandmen drive their cattle usually annexed in England to the in summer chiefly to the wood pas- management of estates; I mean the tures. The sheep generally, with the care of woods and forests. As we are cattle, feed during ahe summer on the situated in the northern parts of Gerwoods and fallows; during the winter, many, almost entirely destitute of in stables, on clover-hay and pease true pit-coal, as we do not abound in straw, also with eorn or pease, and bovey-coal, or brown coal, and turf, sometimes oil-cake. On our great wood is our chief fuel; in course, the estates are generally found large-sized proper management and preservation and improved breeds of cattle, either of our forests is matter of equal necesof Swiss or Dutch extraction, with sity and profit. In these parts we Merino sheep. Hogs, improved either have loaf-wood, as oak, elm, beech, by English or Hungarian stocks, are plane, and the superior timber. Our bred for sale on extensive estates, forests consist of both timber and unespecially on those which have exten- derwood. As to the first, the forest is
divided into fourscore and hundred detained his hearers half an hour beportions, one of which is felled every yond the ordinary time, insulting their year. The second, or underwood, is feelings, and dishonouring the office left in fifteen or twenty divisions, one which he fills, by expatiating on the ot
' which is cut each year. The woods, , benign consequences which must rewhen the timber-trees are grown so sult from the operation of the adorable high, that their tops and branches new Marriage Act,-an Act which cannot be injured by the browsing of in his judgment seems the inost expecattle, afford good pasture, but chiefly dient, and withal the most wise and for sleep and hogs; which last, in christian-like that ever proceeded from years productive of acorns and beech- our omniscient legislators. This young mast, make themselves thoroughly expounder of dark. thivgs admits that fat."
the old marriage-laws were imperfect, The sheep-houses at Harbké are very and framed by mere ignoramuses, withextensive, with ample conveniences out having a due regard to the princifor wintering, washing, shearing, and ples of Christianity. Whata blessed orevery purpose of that husbandry. On dinance must that be which prevents since consulting the Count, relatively old sinners, of fifty years' standing and to the inferiority of Anglo-Merino upwards, from marrying, because they wool, his opinion decidedly is, that the are unable to procure legal testimony superiority of the Continental fleece that they are above twenty-one years results entirely from the sheep being of age! housed in winter, and the wool. de- Well might the reverend and deront fended from the injurious effects of young preacher complain of the stilfrost, and kept in a constant state of necked wickedness of the people at genial and productive warmth. Count despising such a religious law as this, Veltheim, being a member of the and deriding the gracious inventors Brunswick states, was in 1821 elected of it. Well might he declaim with their second president. They assem- a loud voice against the ungodliness bled on business of great importance of the people at suspecting the wisto the landed interest, in consequence dom of Parliament, and thinking and of certain changes in the Prussian le- insinuating that laws were made by it gislative measures.
J. L. contrary to the will of Heaven, and
inconsistent with the precepts of our To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. Saviour. Well might he exhort his SIR,
hearers to repentance from their poliT has been noticed, that in certain tical sips, and point out to them the
parish churches in Durham the path of humility and submission. celebrated new Marriage Act was read Notwithstanding the serious exhorinstead of a scrmon last Sunday. This tations of this young man to his hearers seems to me a hcinous indignity to the to receive the new Marriage Act with Almighty, inasmuch as it is converting becoming decency and gratitude; the house consecrated to His service notwithstanding his loud praises of into a school for the propagation of the wisdom and the goodness of the
uman instead of divine laws. But present Parliament; notwithstanding still I think the course pursued by the his animated assurances that the preDurham reverends attaches no blame sent Marriage Act was an especial upon them, considering the length of blessing, as it were, from heaven; notthe Act, and the impatience and dis- withstanding his zealous denunciations gust which the reading of it must have against those who contemn it;-in excited in the licarers, and possibly spite of all his efforts, there was scarcein the reverend gentlemen themselves; ly an individual of the congregation and doubtless their conduct in this who was not sensible enough to be affair met with less disapprobation disgusted at it, and who did not visibly from their respective congregations evince his displeasure with the setthan would have been manifested if mon of this new-marriago-act advothey had thought proper not only to cate. read the whole of the Act, but to read Clifton-strect; Oct. 17. a more than ordinarily long sermon thereon, which was the course pur. To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. sued last Sunday in the parish of SIR, which I am an inhabitant, ncar Bi- MONG the various improvements shopsgate-street, where the minister in every department, 'I am sur
prised nothing has been adopted in other elements unknown, or at least this country to prevent the frequent unexpected, seeds for vegetation and recurrence of imposition and abuse expansion, by which a new face is, as constantly to be met with among hack- it were, given to the ground. The ney-coach drivers. Is it impossible to discovery of letters, and the conseadopt the French mode in that parti- quent education, are the implements cular? At Paris you bave no alterca- of culture to the mind, as the ploughtion with the driver of a hackney- share is to the earth. coach: the rule there is, the coachman What a subject of contemplation can demand, if you take him by the and exultation to the benevolent man! hour, forty sous (twenty pence) for the He sees the gradual, though slow, apfirst hour, and thirty sous" (Gifteen proach to that ameliorated condition pence) for every succeeding hour. of his fellow-creatures, which to the And, if you hire the coach for the course fanciful might justify the expectation or drive, you pay thirty sous; in which of the certain approach to the new and course or drive you may make the cir- delightful order of things denominated cuit of Paris if you do not stop; but, the Millennium. The bat-eyed politiif you order the coachman to stop, cian alone shuts his eyes or averts his only for a few minutes, it is considered face from the streain of light, which another fare, and you must pay thirty threatens an approaching effulgence sous more; and so on, as often as you that his dark imagination shudders at. check the driver. This is all under- His habits, his conversations, but, stood, and no dispute ever occurs. On above all, his interests, contribute to quitting the vehicle the coachman ex- induce him to wish things may remain pects two sous to drink, and never asks as they bave long been. for more.-Another excellent plan ISelf-interest is the most powerful met with in France, though that is not in sway of all the passions which ina government concern here: I mean labit the human breast; and to this imthe numbering the places as they are pulse chiefly may be ascribed the stand taken in the public stages; so that be which kings and their ministers make who is first to take his place has a against every alteration in their goticket and receipt given bim, with vernment, which may transfer the No.1 on it, and so on in succession smallest portion of influence or power with every passenger.
VIATOR. from their own scale into that of the
people. Although in theory such perFor the Monthly Magazine. sons cannot,—nay, dare not,-deny REVOLUTION making the GRAND TOUR that a due libration of power is tho
of the civilISED WORLD! basis on which the British ConstituPH DHILOSOPHERS and philanthro- tion is founded, yet in praetice they
pists never had so great a reason are always ready to give a prepondeto wish to live as at this moment, in rance to the regal and aristocratical order to witness the progress and scale against the democratical one. effect of the mighty machinery which With all this disposition to injustice is at present moving and operating on and partiality in the great, yet, as in the whole moral world. There is the end numbers constitute strength, scarcely a corner of it, however remote, the people must ultimately prevail. which is not more or less impregnated The great object of the humane reby the great principle which has called former is to obtain the wholesome, the up social man to reflect generally, and necessary change, without those in particular instances to act in a shocks, those convulsions, which have mander as if endowed with new for a moment made the good man powers, or inspired with more elevated consider whether the new order of sentiments, than appear to have bee things be desirable at so dear a rate. longed to his nature for many centu- There is, however, nothing in human ries back. All this, however, has not experience better ascertained, than arisen from any new creation; it was that abuses in government, allowed to in the mind before ; but a concurrence accumulate, are always attended with of circumstances, over which power greater violence in their removal. and cunning could not exercise their This was witnessed in France, and will usual control, have brought it to light; be witnessed, it is to be feared, in in like manner as the plough, in other countries. making a deeper furrow than ordi- It has been said by one of the most nary in the soil, exposes to the air and distinguished writers and reformers of