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in 1035. The Royal Academy of tioned; and also, in a compendious Sciences, in 1666. Fontenelle was. way, the institutions of America. secretary to this academy forty-two The following is the peroration: years. The Institute of France was “On a review of what has been said, established in 1795.
and of the extraordinary progress of After noticiog the Royal Spanish literature, and the march of events Academy, instituted in 1713, and the during the last fifty years in the civiAthenæum, in 1820, a brief view of the lized world, it is obvious that a power chief literary institutions of this coun-, is in operation in society, of which, try was given. The universities ob- although known to our forefathers, the tained only a passing notice; the Royal extent and force could neither be calSociety, the Royal Academy of Paint- culated nor foreseen. That power is ing, and the Society of Arts, were also Knowledge; to attempt to impede the briefly mentioned; but our Institutions, progress of which is not only useless, emphatically so called, demanded and but erroneously mischievous. I can obtained more minute detail.
have no doubt that many of the evils Circulating libraries and book-socie- which society has endured for some ties were of English invention; of the years past, and is still enduring, arise former, the first was opened by one from the attempts, unwise as futile, to Batho, in the Strand, in 1740; and, of prevent the rushing of these mighty the latter, the first was instituted at waters. Men should remember that Leicester in 1743, and existed, till we are progressive beings; that what lately, under the name of the Blue Bell suits one period of society is often Society.
totally unfit for another, and a new The literary institutions of Liverpool one; that at certain periods manis more required particular notice, not only as rapidly progressive than at others; that there the first improvement in our lite- the period of the last tisty years bas rary societies was made, but as that been one of rapid progression, which town itself contains, at the present mo- has led to a new and extraordinary ment, societies, and chiefly the Royal era; and that truc wisdom, instead of Liverpool Institution, which are de- attempting to retain, or to restore the serving our peculiar regard. The old order of things, will be employed Athenæum was established in the year in arranging the new, so as to make it 1798. It unites a good library with a most beneficial for the general good. coflec-room, and affords admission to That, instead of opposing the rolling five hundred young men to read the torrent, we must go along with it; and, books. The Lyceum was established though we may, indeed, regulate its in 1802. The books of this institution impctuosity, we cannot, nor ought we, circulate among the members, which to attempt to stop its course." is not the case with the books of the Athenæum. The Royal Liverpool Institution, established in 1817, has
EXTRACT of the REPORT ON ROADS,
the more the character of a university than
BRIDGES, and canALS, read a literary academy. It has professors
AMERICAN SENATE, MARCH 23, 1822. in the different sciences, and schools From a view of the documents, it for the classics and the mathematics, will be perceived, (say the committee.) with masters to each.
that the number of miles of turnpikeor the four institutions of the mo- roads contemplated by the various tropolis, the Royal Institution, the charters of the companies which have London Institution, and the Russel received letters patent, is 2521 ; of Institution, were concisely, but cor
which there have been completed rectly noticed; but on the Surrey 1807 ; of these roads, about 1250 miles Institution, as it is about to close, Mr. are of solid stone, having on their sprJennings expatiated more at large, face no anglo, greater than 4 or á naming its peculiar advantages, and degrees, even in crossing the highest the scientific and literary lectures mountains, which have, from time to time, been The amonnt of capital subscribed
Dollars. given here by some of the first men of
towards these improvements by
individuals (including the subThe Royal Society of Literature, and the Schools of Arts, at Glasgow, and
scriptions of a few banks,) and
which has been paid, or is exEdinburgh, were then briefly men- pected to be paid, is ........4,158,547
The amount subscribed by the
Erie, passing through Butler, Mercer, commonwealth to the same is 1,861,542 Meadville, and Waterford. To these sams, if there be added
. The northern, north-western, and one half the amount of the ex.
western, sections of the state, will then isting debts of the companies,
be connected with the metropolis, and which it is probable the roads
afford facilities for travelling and transhave cost more than the amount
portation, unequalled as to extent in subscribed by the state and by solvent individuals, say ...... 381,585
the United States. It will appear that to turnpike
Skill, and a judicious economy in roads, there has been subscribed
the construction of turnpike-roads, is and appropriated, in Pennsyl
of vital importance. The art of making vania, the sum of............6,401,474 artificial roads is in its infancy in our Towards the construction of
country; and it behoves us, as we value bridges, also, it will appear
our prosperity, to use every means that a great appropriation has
within our reach to profit by the lights been made.
and experience of those who underThe stock subscribed by indivi.
stand the subject better than ourselves. duals, amount to............1,629,200
The construction of stone and other That subscribed by the common
artificial roads, is a science which few wealth to .................. 382,000
men understand, and yet which few And if half the amount of debts be added, as in the former case, 40,595
men hesitate to undertake; and it is no The amount contributed towards
doubt from a want of ordinary skill in the construction of bridges,
preparing and applying the materials · will have been..............2,051,795 of which our roads are composed, and To Natigation Companies,
in shaping their surface, and of ordiIndividuals have subscribed.... 1,416,610
nary judgment in the application of The commonwealth has subscribed 130,000
Jabour, that most of our roads have And, if to these sums be added the
been constructed so expensively, and cost of the works at the two
some of them so badly. Conawago canals, estimated
The attention of your committee has at .............. 220,000
been drawn to a small English publicaThe probable amount expended
tion, re-printed in Baltimore during on the Lehigh, cannot fall
the last year, and which is to be proshort of .......... 150,000 370,000 cured in that city or in Philadelphia, And leaving out of view the ex
entitled, “M’Adam on Roads." It penditures made by the Schuyl
comprises, besides, an essay upon kill and Susquehanna, and
road-making, by J. Loudon M'Adam, Delaware and Schuylkill, navigation companies, the result
esq. the author; the minutes of an will show an appropriation to
examination of witnesses before a this branch of internal improve
committee of the House of Commons, ment of .................. 1,916,510 appointed to enquire into the state of If all these subscriptions, appro
the roads, and particularly into a new priations, and individual expen
system of turnpike-road-making introditures, be added together, the
duced by Mr. M'Adam. As this work amount will be little short
is well worth the perusal of all who ........ 10,369,779 have any desire to understand the Two complete stone roads, running principles upon which the British turnfrom Philadelphia to Pittsburg, 300 pike-roads are constructed and remiles each in length, one of which is paired, so that not a rut is ever to be already finished.
seen on their surface, your committee One continued road from Philadel- have deemed it worth their while to phia to the town of Erie, on the lake of bring it thus into the notice of the that name, passing through Sunbury, legislature. From this book it apBellefonte, Phillipsburg, Franklin, pears that, according to the most apand Meadville.
proved system at present in use in Two roads, having but a few miles England, the stones are broken so fine, of turnpike deficient, from Philadel as that none of them exceeds six phia; one to the New-York-state line, ounces in weight, in order that a more in Bradford county, passing through speedy consolidation may be produced. Berwick, and one to the northern part The depth of the materials is about of the state, in Susquehanna county, ten inches, which is probably one passing through Bethlehem. And one fourth less than the average depth of continued road from Pittsburg to our stone-roads. The surface of the
road is as nearly flat as is sufficient to low as one to four inches, and a small carry off the water, being only three number are entirely flat, which is proinches higher in the centre than at the bably detrimental to their duration, by sides, where the width is eighteen feet. permitting the water to soak down, The convexity of our roads generally destroy the foundation, and injure the varies so as to make them from six to materials. It is worthy of remark, fifteen inches higher in the centre than that stone roads are said in the work at the sides, which occasions their under consideration, to have been conbeing cut up, inasmuch as the weight structed with great permanency, over of a loaded waggon is principally wet and marshy ground, the materials thrown upon the wheels which are on having been so amalgamated as to lie the lowest side. A few of them are as like a board upon the soft earth. .
BRITISH LEGISLATION. ACTS Passed in the THIRD Year of the REIGN of GEORGE THE FOURTH, or in the
THIRD SESSION of the sevENTH PARLIAMENT of the UNITED KINGDOM
MAP. XXVII. To amend and con- the parties injured to give notice to the U tinue, until the fifth day of July higli constable, mayor, or chief magistrate 1826, so much of an Act made in the who are thereupon to give notice to the 55th year of his late Majesty, as relates to magistrates, who are to summon a petty additional Duties of Ercise, in Great session.--Neglecting to give notice, highBrit on Ercise Licences May 15 constable, &c. may be sued for damages.1822.
Prescribes the power of the magistrates in Cap. XXVIII. To continue, so long
such petty session.-Magistrates may issule
ng summons for witnesses. A penalty on as the Bounties now payable on Irish witnesses for not appearing, &c.—Inlabı Linens when exported from Ireland shall tants may suffer judgment to co by defanli. continue, the Bounties on British and Persons aggrieved may appeal to the Irish Linen exported.- May 15.
quarter sessions.—Provision for recoCap. XXIX. To continue, until the vering damages sustained in Scotland.25th day of January 1823, and from Proceeding after decree, and mode of thence to the End of ihe then next Session assessment. of Parliament, an Act made in the 54th Cap. XXXIV. For the Employment Year of his late Majesty, for rendering of the Poor in certain Districls in Irethe Payment of Creditors more equal and land.-May 24. expeditious in Scotland.-May 15,
Lord lientenant may direct that any Cap. XXX. For reducing, during sums not exceeding the amount of the prethe Continuance of the present Duty on
sentments made for carrying on any public Malt, the Duty on Malt, made from Bear
work may be paid out of the consolidated
fund for that purpose.-Money to be issued or Bigg only, in Scotland.-May 15..
to the engineer or other officer employed Cap. XXXI. To grant Countervail
in the works, who shall account for the ang Duties, and to allow equivalent same.-Treasurers of counties to pay Drawbacks, on Malt, Beer, and Spirits,
money raised by presentments in re-payimported and exported between Greatment of advances.-Act not to extend to Britain and Ireland.-May 15.
any road pow making or repairing.-Lord Cap. XXXII. For repealing the lieutenant may direct engineers to report Duties on plain Silk Net or Tulle, and on plans for making and improving roads, for granting new Duties in lieu thereof. and may advance 50,0001. - Roads to be
Cap. XXXIII. For altering and under the superintendanee of engineers apamending several Acts passed in the first pointed by the lord lieutenant.--Money and Ninth Years of the Reion of King issued for works to be accounted for by George the First, and in the Forty-first,
such engineers.-Presentment may be
made for payment of money advanced Fifty-second, Fifty-sixth, and Fifty
Persons entrusted with the making of seventh, Years of the Reign of his late
roads, &c. empowered to purchase preMajesty King George the Third, so far mises.-Width of roads to be twenty feet as the same relate to the Recovery of at least.-Dwelling-houses, orchards, &c. Damages committed by riotous and tre- not to be taken without consent of owner. multuous Assemblies and unlawful and --Bodies politic, &c. and others empow. malicious Offenders.-May 24.
ered to sell premises. If they neglect to No action to be brought against the inha. do so, a jury to be called to value the bitants of any place unless damage ex- premises.--Materials for making or repairceed 301.-Where damages are sustained, ing roads to be taken from wastes, or from
other other grounds, by order of justices; but Cap. XXXVII. To extend the consent of owners of gronnd necessary Powers of the Comminissioners appointeil before materials are taken.- Penalty ou by an Aci, passed in the last Session of persons taking materials gathered for the Parliament, for inquiring into the Colparposes of this Act, 51. Cap. XXXV. To make perpetual, in Ireland.
lection and Management of the Revenue and to amend, several Acts made in the Thirty-eighth, Forticth, and Fiftieth
Cap. XXXVIII. An Act for the Years of the Reign of his late Majesty further and more adequate Punishment
of Persons convicted of Manslaughter, King George the Third, for the Manage- and of Servants convicted of robbing their meni, Support, Regulation, and Mainte- Masters, and of Accessories before the rance
, of the Foundling Hospital in Pact to Grand Larceny, and certain Dablin; and to make a further Provision other Felonies. for the Regulation and Maintenance of the said Hospital
Cap. XXXIX. An Act for preventCap. XXXVI. Toreduce the Duty, Warrants of Attorney to confess Judg
ing Frauds upon Creditors, by secret of Excise on Malt made in Ireland, and
ment. certain Drawbacks in respect thereof.
VARIETIES, LITERARY AND PHILOSOPHICAL;
Including Notices of Works in Hand, Domestic and Foreign. DICTTONARY of Universal Griffith's Stcam-Carriage, we think attempted in our language, and one of intended public exposition of the carthe most useful for reference, will con- riage now building, has arisen from stitute the first volume of the “Me- sonic important improvements. Many thodical Cyclopedia,” and will appcar experiments have been satisfactorily on the 1st of January.
made respecting the self-movement of Don Carlos, a tragedy, by Lord the carriage in every direction : but, JOHN RUSSELL, will appear in a few in consequence of the distance from days.
the fire, at which were placed the JOHN BAYLEY, esq. F.S.A. one of his higher ranges of tubes that compose Majesty's Sub-Commissioners on the the boiler, a suflicient quantity of Public Records, and author of “the steam did not continue to be geneHistory of the Tower," is engaged in rated with the celerity required. It making collections for a Complete was therefore found expedient to reHistory of London, Westminster, and move such ranges of tubes, and to Southwark, which is to be enriched place them nearer the influence of the with a great variety of engravings of fire, that the efficient elasticity of the general views, public buildings, anti- steam might not be interrupted, and quities, and portraits. The work is to the action of all the tubes secured. form three folio volumes, published in This work has, of course, employed conquarterly parts, and the first will ap- siderable time; but of complete ultipear in the ensuing season.
mate success no doubt can be justly The History of Roman Literaturc, entertained. from the earliest periods to the Au- The Chronology of the last Fifty gustan age, by John DUNLOP, esq. is Years, from 1773 to 1822 inclusive, in the press, in two volumes, octavo. will be published in the first weck of
A new edition of the Progresses of January. As a work of historical reQueen Elizabeth is in considerable ference, this single volume answers forwardness. Two volumes are finish- cvery purpose of fifty volumes of aned, and the third is so far advanced, nual registers; and the promised edithat the whole may be expected early tion will be complete to Dec. 31, 1822. in 1923. The volumes are entirely Dr. Robinson's long promised new arranged, and will be accompa- Abridgment of Humne and Smollet, nied by proper indexes.
with his own continuation to the death A separate volume of the Progresses of Gcorge the Third, is in the press. of King James is also preparing for the It will be embellished with 100 enpress, by Mr. Nichols.
gravings, after famous pictures of the Some doubts having been expressed English school, and, as a book of eduas to the ultimate success of Mr. cation, will be unequalled. MOSTHLY MAG. No. 375.
Early in 1823 will be published, cated by permission to liis Majesty, Part I. of the Encyclopædia of Mu- and the first work of the kind ever sic, or General Dictionary of the edited in England, will speedily be Science. The articles will for the published. most part be original, and will come Messrs. W. DEEBLE and J. A. prehend whatsoever of importance the Rolph propose publishing, by sublexicographers of music in France, scription, a bighly-finished engraving Germany, Italy, and England, have of St. Ethelbert's Tower, Canterbury. included in their works; and will be Shortly will be published, Dr. arranged by the combined talents and COLLYER's Lectures on Scripture Comexperience of Messrs. Clementi, Henry parisons, forming the seventh volume R. Bishop, Horsley, and Wesley; while of the “Series on the Evidences of a portion of the work will have the Christianity.” The six volumes aladvantage of Mr. Shield's revision: ready published contain Lectures on the mathematical calculations will be Scripture Facts, Prophecy, Miracles, verified and digested by Mr. Hewitt; Parables, Doctrines, and Duties. and the general preparation and super- The art of mezzotinto engraving on intendance of the entire materials will steel bas lately been brought to perbe undertaken by Mr. Bacon.
section, and possesses all the softness, A curious and extensive collection richness, and beauty of copper-plates, of Natural History, chiefly from South- with this incalculable advantage, that ern Africa, has been opened at the a single plate will produce thousands Egyptian Hall, in the room where of fine impressions. The merit of Bullock's Museum, and afterwards adapting steel plates to mezzotinto Belzoni's Tombs, were exhibited. A engraving belongs to the present geliving gnu, and two fierce but hand. neration, and is not yet many months some dogs from the interior of the old. An experiment was tried by Cape, and a huge hippopotamus stuff- Mr. Lowry; but the first successful ed, attract particular attention.
mezzotinto engraving was made by Mr. Salt, in a letter from Cairo, in Mr. Lupton, and obtained the Gold August, states that a roll of Papyrus, Iris Medal of the Society for the Enmeasuring about eleven inches in couragement of Arts, &c. at their last length, and five in circumference, has session. General steel-engraving has been discovered in the island of Ele- for some years becn adopted by Messrs. phantina, containing a portion of the Perkins and Co. and it is now beginlatter part of the Iliad, very fairly ning to be extensively practised. All written in large capitals, such as were the engravings of the New Methodical in use during the tiine of the Pto- Cyclopædia are preparing on steel: lemys, and under the earlier Roman hence, in thousands of impressions, emperors. The lines are numbered, the last will be as good as the first. and there are Scolia in the margin. The “Great Unknown,” as be is call
Mr. WATSON, of Hull, is preparing ed by his sycophantic school, threatens for publication, a work upon the trees us with another production of his ne and shrubs that will live in the open vel-manufactory, under a title of the air of Great Britain throughout the most puerile alliteration, viz. “ Perero! year, to consist of coloured figures of the Peak." Such a pretty sounding and descriptions, under the title of name must delight the novel-reading Dendrologia Britannica, of which the misses of the three kingdoms. first part will appear in January.
Other claimants, whose names have A Letter to Mr. Canning is in the lately been too much before the pubpress, on the commercial and political lic, are also threatening various heavy resources of Peru, setting forth the imposts. Thus a certain noble writer, claims 'of that country to be recoy- who in facility equals the “ Great Un nized as an independent state.
known" himself, while he so far tran: A collection of Poems on various scends bim in talent, announces at the subjects, from the pen of Helen MA- one instant, the Deluge, Heaven and RIA WILLIAMS, is in the press. The Hell, three other Cantos of Don Juan volume will also contain some re- and several tragedies! And Mt marks on the present state of literature Southey, in addition to his various in France.
jobs in prose, which we bave duly na The first number of Mr. Fos- ticed, has in the press a poem, called BROOKE's Encyclopædia of Antiquities a Tale of Paraguay. and Elements of Archæology, dedi- Mr. Moore's Loves of the Angels i