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bishop of Canterbury, Wulfstan bishop destroyer of their rights;* but Elred of Worcester, and the principal men archbishop of York, timid and canof London,* —humiliated by misfor- tious, who saw (as the old historians tune,-hastened to the camp of the relate,) that there was no opposing the stranger, took the oath of peace, and current of events, nor that Divine delivered to him their bostages. They Will which makes and unmakes aureceived, in return, promises of kind- thority,t consented to perform this ness and protection, which were ful. office towards the threatening stranger. filled by the general devastation which The church was prepared as in those accompanied the march of William days when the free suffrages of the towards the capital. He sent to his best men of Englandi summoned the friend, to his auxiliary of Rome, the king of their choice to receive the inspoils of the rich churches and edi- vestiture of the power they confided fices, consisting of large sums of to him ; but this previous election,money, magnificent vases, and orna- without which the claim to be a king ments of gold, with the standard of could be but a vain mockery, a bitter Harold, over which that of the suc- insult of strength towards weakness, cessor of St. Peter had just tri- —this election did not take place for umphed.ll
the Norman duke. He left his camp William availed himself of the booty, of strangers, and marched through pillaged in his march upon London, their triple ranks towards the Abbey, to render the trembling Saxons inore where a few timid Saxons awaited submissive. By money he made men him, who put on, indeed, an unembartraitors, and by terror he made them rassed countenance, and an appearvile ;ş and the Saxon patriots soon ance of freedom in their base and serfound that their ranks were polluted vile office. All the avenues of the by the presence of recreants. It seems church to a great distance, the squares that William consulted bis Norman and streets of the city, were covered and French chiefs as to the best with armed soldiers. Two hundred means of consolidating and comple- and sixty military chiefs, the staff of ting his conquests, and one of them, the conquerors, entered the Abbey Aimery de Thouars, an Aquitain by with their leader. The ceremony nation, gave him the ingenious advice began; and the Bishop of Bayeux ento cause himself, above all, to be pro- quired, in the French language, wheclaimed king by the small band of the Normans were of opinion that their Saxons whom he had succeeded to leader should assume the title of King alarm and to corrupt. The Norman of the English; on which the Archwas pleased with this counsel, and he bishop of York appealed to the Engsummoned Stigand, the archbishop of lish, in the Saxon language, to decide Canterbury, who had taken the oath whether they would have the Norman of peace, to anoint him in Westmin- for their king. Violent acclamations ster Abbey,** where it had long been burst from the church, which vibrated the custom to anoint the kings of Eng- through the gates, and reached the land: Stigand refused to give his be- horsemen who were stationed in the nediction to a man covered with the neighbouring streets. They imagined blood of his fellows, the invader and these cries were cries of alarm, and
in their fury they set fire to the sur* And ealle tha bestan men of Lundene. rounding houses, whose inhabitants (Frag. of a Saxon Chronicle, published by they massacred. Others rushed toEhyr.)
wards the church, wbich the flames † Promisit qnod fidus dominus (hold
bad nearly reached. Llaford) esset. Alramen fusena elle fassarunt omne
(To be continued in our next.) quod persiarsibant. (Ib.) || Ecclesiæ Romanæ St. Petri in anro
Viro crueuto et alieni jarie inofore. et argento ultrà quam credibili sit. (Guil. (Guil, Henb.) Pict.)
+ Cedendum esse tempori et divinæ Dolo et pecunia corrumpero. (Will. non resistendum ordinationi. (Sax. BrompMalm.)
ton.) Aymericus Thoarcensis, ubi regnare
Bestan men. (Chr. Sax.) cæperit, rebellem quamque minus ansu
| Eall folc yeacas Eadward to cynge. rum. (Guil. Pict.)
(Chr. Sax.) ** În Basilico S. Petri quæWestmonas
Guill, Pict. 206. terium nominatur. (Ord. Vid.)
[ Monas. Ang. 11, 220.
For the Monthly Magazine. OFFICIAL RETURN of the POPULATION of the towns of GREAT BRITAIN in 1821
containing above 2,000 Inhabitants. ABERDEEN 44,796 Bungay 3,290 | Dudley (Town Horsham .... 4,575 Abergavenny 3,338 | Burslem.... 9,699 and Parish)18,211 Huddersfield 13,284 Aberystwiti 4,0.59 Burton-upona Dumbarton
3,481 Hull, with Abingdon 5,137 Trent 6,700 Dumfries • • 11,052 Sculcoates 39,040 Alcester.... 2,279 Bury (Lan
Dunbar 5,272 Huntingdon 2,806 Alnwick.... 5,9:7 cashire) ..10,583 Dundee • 30,575 Hytbe...... 2,181 Altoa ...... 2,499 Bury St. Ed- Dupfermline 13,681 Ilminster 2,156 Alverstoke.. 4,788 munds.... 9,999 Durham · 9,822 Inverkeithing 2,512 Andover... 4,123 Calne.
4,549 | Eastbourne 2,607 Inverness ..12,264 Anuan...... 4,486 Cambridge 14,142 Edinburgh 138,235 Ipswich .. 17,186 Arbroath 5,817 Campbeltown 6,445 Edmonton · 7,900 Isleworth
5,269 Arundel .... 2,511 Canterbury 18,745 Egham 3,616 Jedburgh 5,251 Ashborne 4,708 Cardiff
3,521 Elgin 5,308 Keighley 9,223 Ashburton - 3,403 Cardigan
4,860 Ashby-de-la- Carlisle ....15,476 Ely ........ 5,079 Kendal 8,984
Zonch.... 3,937 Carmarthen 8,906 Enfield .... 8,227 Kenilworth 2,577 Ashford 7,743 Carnarvon .. 5,788 Epsom 2,890 Kettering
3,668 Ashton-under- Chatham and
3,487 KidderminLyne 9,292 Rochester 24,063 Exeter ..23,479 ster ..... .. 10,709 Aylesbury 4,400 Cheadle 3,862 Falmouth 4,392 Kinghorn
2,443 Ayr. 7,455 Chelmsford
4,994 | Fareham 3,677 King's Norton 3,651 Banbury.... 5,396 Cheltenham 13,396 Farnham 3,132 Kingston.... 4,908 Banff 3,855 Chepstow 3,008 Faversham.. 3,919 Kirkaldy 4,452 Bangor 3,579 Chertsey. 4,279 | Folkestone.. 3,989 Kirkwall 2,212 Barnesley 8,284 | Cheshunt 4,376 Forfar... 5,897 Knaresbro'.. 5,283 Barnstaple.. 5,079 Chester .. 19,949 | Forres......
3,540 | Lanark
7,085 Basingstoke 3,165 Chesterfield 5,077 | Framlingham, 2,327 Lancaster .. 10,144 Bath ...... 36,811 Chichester 7,362 | Frome...... 12,411 | Launceston 2,183 Battersea 4,992 Chippenham ,S,201 Fulham 6,492 Leamington Battle 2,852 Chipping Nor- Gainsborough 5,893
Priors 2,183 Beaumaris 2,205 ton. 2,266 Glasgow ..147,043 Ledbury.... 3,421 Beccles 3,493 Chiswick 4,236 Gloucester.. 9,744 Lceds (Town Bedford 5,466 Christchurch 4,644 Godalming. 4,098 & Liberty) 83,796 Bedminster 7,979 Cirencester 4,987 Grantham
9,394 | Leicester
..30,125 Berwick.... 8,723 Clapham.... 7,151 Gravesend 3,814 Leominster 3,651 Beverley 7,503 Clitheroe 3,213 Greenwich .. 20,712 Lerwick.... 2,224 Birmingham106,722 Cockermouth 3,790 Grimsby 3,064
Lewes-..... 7,083 Bishop Stort. Colchester .. 14,016 Grinstead,
Lewisham 8,185 ford...... 3,358 Corsham... 2,727 East
3,153 | Lichfield...
6,075 Bishop Wear- Coventry ..21,242 Guildford 3,161 Lincoln ....
.. 10,367 mouth.... 9,477 | Cranbrook 3,683 Haddington 5,255 Linlithgow .. 3,112 Blackburn ..21,940 Crediton.«
.••• 5,515 Hales Owen 10,946 Liverpool. .118,972 Blandford 2,643 Croydon... 9,254 Halesworth 2,166 Liskeard.... 2,423 Bodmin 2,902 Cuckfield 2,385 Halifax ....12,628 Lochmaben
2,651 Bolton • 22,037 | Cupar ...... 5,892 Hammersmith 8,809 London. • 1,225,694 Boston ....10,73 | Darlington.. 5,750 Hampstead 7,263 Loughborough7,365 Bradford Dartford.. 3,593 Harrow
...... 6,012 (Wilts) 3,760 | Daventry 3,326 Harwich.... 4,010 Lowestoft 9,675 Do. (York) 13,064 Deal 6,811 Hastings.... 5,085 Ludlow 4,820 Brandon.... 1,770 Denbigh 3,195 | Hatfield 3,215 Lutterworth 2,102 Brechin 5,906 Deptford ..19,862 Haverford,
Lyme Regis 2,269 Brecon .... 4,193 Derby...... 17,423 West 4,055 Lymington .. 3,164 Bridgnorth.. 4,345 Devizes 4,208 | Hawick . 4,387 Lynn ......12,253 Bridgwater.. 6,155 Dewsbury 6,380 Heaton Norris 6,958 Macclesfield 17,746 Bridlington 4,275 Dingwall 2,031 | Helston
2,671 | Maidstone
12,508 Bridport 3,742 Diss
2,704 Hemel Hemp. Maldon 3,198 Brighthelm
Dolgelly.... 3,588 stead 3,962 Malton, New 4,005 ston......24,429 | Doncaster .. 8,544 Henley, Oxon. 3,509 Manchester and Bristol 87,779 Dorchester 2,743 Hereford
Salford .. 133,788 Bromley.... 3,147 Dorking 3,812 Hertford
4,265 | Mansfield
7,861 Bromwich, Douglas 6,054 Hinckley 4,216 Margate .
7,843 West 9,505 | Dover ......10,827 Hitchin 4,486 Marlborough 3,038 Bromsgrove 7,519 Downton 3,114 Holyhead
2,288 Buckingham 3,465 | Droitwich 2,176 | Honiton 3,296 | Melksham
4,765 MONTHLY MAG, No. 376.
3,017 | Louth
Preston •24,575 St. German's 2,404 | Uttoxeter 4,658 bray...... 2,815 Putney 3,394 St. Neot's .. 2,272 Uxbridge 2,750 Middleton 5,809 Radnor 2,186 St. Peter Port Wakefield ..10,764 Mildenhall 2,974 Ramsgate 6,031 (Guernsey)11,173 Wallingford 2,098 Mitcham.... 4,453 Reading ....12,867 Stafford 5,736 Walsall ....11,914 Monmouth. 4,164 Reigate
2,961 Stamford 5,050 Waltham Ab. Montrose ••10,388 Renfrew... 2,646 Stirling 7,113 bey Morpeth.... 3,415 Retford, East 2,465 Stockton. 5,006 Wandsworth 6,709 Nairn 3,228 | Richmond
Stowmarket 2,252 | Ware 3,844 Newark 8,084 (Surrey).. 5,994 Stranraer 2,463 | Warminster 5,61% Newbury 5,347 Richmond
Stratford-npon- Warrington 13,570 Newcastle-upon- (York) •. 3,546
3,069 | Warwick 8,255 Tyne, with Rickmans
Stroud (Glou. Wednesbury 6,471 Gateshead 46,948
worth 3,940 cester).. 7,097 WellingboNewcastle-un- Ripon 4.563 Sudbury 3,950 rough 4,454
der-Lyne.. 7,031 Rochdale ..13,453 Sunderland 14,725 Wellington(SaNewport (Isle Romford.... 3,777 Sutton( Notts) 3,943 lop)........... 8,996
of Wight) 4,059 Romsey 5,128 Sutton Cold. Wellington (SoNorth Allerton 2,626 Rotherham.. 3,548 field... 3,466 merset) 4,170 Northampton 10,793 Rothesay 4,107 Swaff ham 2,836 Wells (Norf.) 2,950 Norwich....50,288 Rugby .... 2,300 Swansea • 10,235 (Somer. Nottingham 40,415 Rutherglen.. 4,091 Tain 2,861 set)...... 5,888 Oldham ....21,662 Rye ....
3,599 | Tamworth 8,921 | Westbury 2,117 Ormskirk 3,838 Saffron Walden 4,154 Taunton 8,534 Weymouth & Oswestry 3,910 Salisbury 8,763 | Tavistock 5,483 Melcombe Otley 3,065 Sandwich
2,912 Tenterden 3,259 Regis 6,629 Oundle 2,150 Scarborough 8,188 Tewkesbury 4,962 Whitby 8,697 Oxford ....16,364 Selby. 4,097 Thame..... 2,479 | Whitchurch 5,489 Paisley ••28,000 ' Selkirk
2,696 | Thetford.. 2,922 Whitehaven 12,433 Peebles 2,701 Seven Oaks 2,144 Thirsk.. 2,533 Whithorn 2,361 Pembroke 4,925 Shaftesbury 2,903 Tiurso
6,713 Penryn 2,933 Sheffield....42,157 | Tiverton.... 8,631 Wigan....... 17,716 Penzance 5,424 Shepton Mal- Tonbridge 7,406 | Wigtown
4,043 Perth ... · 19,068
5,021 Totness 3,128 Wilton 2,038 Peterborough 8,558 Sberborue 5,622 Tottenham.. 5,812 Winchester.. 7,739 Peterhead 4,783 Shields, North 8,205 Towcester 2,554 Windsor. Petworth 2,781 Shoreham,
1,035 Witney 2,847 Pickering 2,746 New 1,047 | Trowbridge 9,545 WolverbampPlymouth ..61,212 Shrewsbury 19,502 Truro (borough ton ....
18,380 Pontefract.. 4,447 Skipton 3,411 only) 2,712 Woodbridge 4,060 Pool (Montg.)+,255 Southampton 13,353 Tweedmouth 4,675 Woolwich - 17,008 Poole (Dor.
Southwell 3,051 | Twickenham 4,206 Worcester .. 17,023 setshire) 6,390 Spalding.... 5,207 | Tynemouth 9,45+ Worksop
4,567 Portsmouth, with Si. Alban's.. 4,472 | Ulverstone .. 4,315 Yarmoutle -- 18,040 Gosport 51,832 St. Andrew's 4,899 Upton-upon
4,655 Prescot 4,468 St. Austell · • 6,175 Severn
2,319 / York
To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. ston, which is described “as possessSIR,
ing the most surprising qualities as a TH THE pages in the Monthly Maga- remedy against that distressing and
zine being open to receive com- severe malady, the stone in the bladmunications respecting every useful der.” The writer adds, “that the discovery which can tend to ameliorate astonishing cure which it has effected the moral and physical condition of in the case of Mr. Samuel Jackson, mankind, has often been the means of the great currier in Little Windmilldoing much good. If on any occasion street, merits that its restorative and individuals, from ignorance or impro- sanative powers should be more uniper motives, have made false state- versally diffused :" and “ that he is ments, the evil to society has been now, after two years' trial, completely obviated, by its pages being open to cured, and that he is as free from stone their contradiction. This remark is or gravel as any personage in the made in consequence of a communi- kingdom.” cation, dated Cullum-street, in your Feeling deeply interested in what. last Magazine, respecting what is ever concerned so respectable a gencalled the medicinal well at Coomb tleman, and so useful a magistrate Farm, in the neighbourhood of King- and governor of this parish, I caused
enquiry enquiry to be made of himself by a distress by an arrangement between mutual friend ; and the result is, from the overseers and farmers, which had Mr. Jackson's own mouth, that he has thrown every labouring man out of indeed been making use of the water, employ who did not obtain a ticket and still does so, but that he is unable from an overseer, appointing him, for to say that be has derived any benefit ; a certain number of days, to work with and, within the last fortnight, has suf- a particular fariner. It appeared that, fered as much agony from the stone when any one applied to the overseers as ever he did in his life. It will be for relief, instead of giving money they nseless, therefore, for any person to handed a ticket, directed to some remove to Kingston, to put himself farmer in league with them, desiring under the faculty there, in expectation him to employ the bearer for the numof being relieved, under their advice, ber of days specified, and at a rate of by the well of Coomb Farm.
wages also mentioned on the ticket, Whoever is in the least acquainted the amount of which would be de. with the nature of the urinary calculi, ducted from his poor rate.* The rate and how seldom they yield to the of wages never exceeded one shilling most powerful solvents that can with and eight pence per day for men with safety be introduced into the bladder, the largest families, one shilling and by the stomach or by the urethra, will four-pence was the general rate for not very readily believe that water, so married men whose families were not "refined and filtered by the hand of considered large by the overseer. Nature" as this is said to be, can be These men had applied to Mr. Forbes, productive of even the smallest be- the magistrate in their neighbourhood, nefit.
M. who said he could not interfere, St. James's.
although he thought they were very ill
used. Mr. Allen regretted his inability To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. to redress their grievance, but recomSIR,
mended them to apply to the magisAVING frequently observed the trates at the next sessions for the tion likely to improve the condition of to bear their expenses home again. the poor, I am induced to offer the Thus it appears that the overseers, following remarks for insertion (should in conjunction with the farmers, posyou deem them worthy,) in your valu- sess a power of fixing the price of agriable Magazine. I have often thought cultural labour; and, as the prosperity that the plan generally pursued by of the country in great measure deoverseers, select vestries, and guardian pends upon the proper use of this boards, towards the poor who are able power, as no kingdom can flourish to work, so far from being beneficial to where the labouring classes are so the parish, is extremely injurious; for, reduced and degraded as they must be instead of supporting them, and by a perseverance in such a system, it enabling them to contend against the becomes every one, who has the least attempts of their employers to reduce regard for the welfare of his country, their wages to such a scale as will to look to such combinations with a scarcely afford them a bare subsis- suspicious and scrutinizing eye. tence, they generally make common Every reflecting overseer, however cause with the latter; and, by this he may be blinded or misled for the means, not only reduce the labourer to moment, must see that it never can be the brink of destruction, but bring the for the permanent interest of his parish price of labour so low, that every man to reduee the price of labour ; it is by who has a family dependant upon his the produce of their labour alone that bodily exertions alone, is quite unable the poor are kept from the workhouse; to support them without assistance from the poor's rate.
* I have not been able to learn what The evil of this system was exhibited in a strong light at the end of last compensation the farmers make to the month, by the application of five men parish for
the services of these men,
if from Woodstock, in Kent, where they think that those parishioners, who derive all had families, to L. B. Allen, esq. the no benefit from this arrangement, would magistrate at Union Hall, requesting not allow their rates to be expended in the that he would interfere in their behalf, support of labonring men, for the sole as they were reduced to the greatest benefit of their farming neighbours.
and and, in proportion as that is dimi- unable to support themselves, were nished, the number of paupers will be taken into the workhouse, and not increased; and, however the overseers allowed or assisted by the overseers to may congratulate themselves on the underwork their neighbours, the rate of apparent saving in giving an order for wages would be immediately increased; a few days' labour instead of a few and, in a short time, the demand for shillings, they will find, in the end, labour also, those who wanted labourthat they have gained nothing by the ers either for the production of agricontrivance, for the families of the cultural stock, or manufactures, would labourers must be supported; and, as take them from the workhouse at fair the rate of wages they have fixed is wages, and charge this increase to the insufficient for that purpose, who but consumers, who, as they derive all the the overseers will ultimately be called benefit, certainly ought to bear the upon to make up that deficiency? whole expense; by these means, the They will have even to do more, be- poor would be protected, and enabled cause a man will make the greatest to support themselves creditably, exertions, and suffer, the greatest while the burthen to the rate-payers privations, to prevent himself and would be diminished. The office of family from becoming chargeable; but, overseer of the poor is in some measure when once the barrier is broken down, similar to that of the Roman tribune as it must be in numerous instances by of the people; and, as the latter supa reduction in wages, he is invariably ported the plebeians against the nobifound to relax bis own efforts, and rely lity, so should the former protect and more upon the parish.
support the poor when they are no The effect of this system is more longer able to support themselves, nor evident when applied to agricultural to contend with success against the labourers, but the evil is equally great difficulties opposed to them by the when it is acted upon in large towns: rules, regulations, and restrictions, of how often do parish-officers, on com- society, constituted as it is at preplaint of the master, act with harshness sent.
S. £. to men who have refused an offer of work at 10s. or 12s. per week, when For the Monthly Magazine. the average wages have been from THE GERMAN STUDENT. twenty to five-and-twenty shillings ; declaring that, if they had accepted the
WIELAND continued. Offer, they (the overseers) would wil. W the separation of Wieland and lingly have assisted them with something more to enable them to support Bodmer, have not been clearly ascertheir families, without considering that, tained. Whether Bodmer availed whenever a man obtains employment himself of Wieland's pen too encroachon such terms, some other man on fall ingly,—for some bave affected to trace pay must be thrown out of it, and that the style of the latter in “Sir Percival," the masters will never employ any and other poems, circulated as Bodothers while they can obtain those to mer’s; whether already Wieland's whom the parish will pay a portion of admiration of the White Bull” of their wages.
Voltaire, and of various infidel works It will no doubt appear unreasonable of the French, began to give offence to to many, that individuals, able to work, an old man, who had much of the inshould be supported in the workhouse tolerance of faith; whether his moral without being called upon to do any austerity restrained the young man thing in order to reduce the expense; inconveniently ;-in 1754 Wieland had but, let it be recollected, that their quitted his host, bad taken separate being there is a proof that the demand lodgings, and gave lessons in Greek for labour has decreased, or, what is to some pupils of family. He transvirtually the same thing, that the in- lated, for the manager of the theatre crease of labourers bas overstocked the at Zurich, Rowe's " Lady Jane Gray," market; and that, if those who cannot which was successfully performed as find employment elsewhere are taken an original; and he composed a less into the house, and the produce of popular tragedy on the story of Cle; their labour carried into the market, it mentina of Poretta. In 1758 Wieland makes
matters still worse, particularly accompanied these players to Bern, as it is always sold below the fair mar- where he accepted a preceptorship in
price ; whereas, if all who were the house of M. Sinner. At Bern he