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lished, in the same year, by, M. Pouillet. the views of administration. M. Gay.. If the line is a circumference of a circle, Lussac has drawn up tables, that for we then find one of the results of the science and minute detail become the experiments of Messrs. Gay-Lussac surest guide that rulers can follow in and Welter, on a steel ring magnetised, the collection of the revenue. by the process of M. Arag. If the line moir of M. Francoeur, on this subject, of the centres is only a curve, with two and another by M. Benoit on areomeJurauches symmetrical, with respect to a ters, have honourable mention in the plane passing through the conductor, report of the commission. The latter The analysis leads to a resuit confirmed memoir may be considered as an exby recent experiments.
cellent chapter of a treatise on physics; The second circular memoir is that of but the author has not taken up the M. F. Savary; some account of it has experimental part of the question. already been given in the Revue En. M. Despreiz has applied himself to cyclopedique.
consider the conductibility of bodies, Never was any discovery prosecuted that is, the greater or less facility with with more zcal and success than that which licat penetrates them, and spreads of Erstedt, on the analogy between the through their interior. He has found electric and magnetic fluids. Three that, in their relation to this property, years bave bardly elapseil, and the the following bodies or substances are scicnce has already arrived at certain in the order that experiment has ascertheories, founded on facts, numerous tained, commencing with the highest and well analysed; also, at methods of degree; copper, iron, zinc, tin, lead, calculation which would, alone, produce marble, porcelain, and brick-clay. The new discoveries.
report on this labour was drawn up by While the knowledge relative to clrc- M. Fourier. The results obtained by tricity and magnetism is acquiring M. Depretz are pronounced by the comdaily accessions, the science of light missaries to be every way worthy of the and optics is advancing with rapid academy's encouragement; and ihat the steps. M. Fresnel has presented several physical sciences, several arts, and the memoirs, the object of which is to ex- oeconomical processes, as to the distripress the general laws of double re. bution and use of fuel, would be benefraction; also to discover the laws of fited by their publication. a new kind of polarisation, to ubich he Of three comets observed in 1822, has given the name of circular polari. the first was discovered by M. Gambart, sation; also, to prove directly, that glass to whom we owe, also, the observation compressed, causes light to undergo a of two others at Marseilles. M. Pons double refraction; and lastly, to examine was the first that discovered the other the law of modification impressed by two. The Revue has already noticed a total reflection on polarised light. That comet whose revolution was deter, These rescarches are connected with mined hy M. Euke, and which has been the theoretic notions that M. Fresnel, designated as the comet of a short and several other writers on physics, period; it will hereafter, no doubt, rehave adopted, respecting the nature of ceive an appropriate name, like thic light. They consider its action as other bodies of our system. operated by vibrations extremely ra- M. Gambey presented to the Acapid, propagated is elastic mediums. demy two instruments, constructed on Prom this opinion not being generally new principles, 1. A compass of decliadmitted, solne dissensions have arisen nation; and 2, an heliostat. With rein the republic of sciences, though, spect to the invention and execution of from habii, more peaceably disposed astronomical instruinents, M. G. is, at than that of letters.
present, the first artist in Europe, The minister of interior had desired M. the Abbé Halma, translator of the the academy to examine afresh the Almagest, is now publishing a French question of areonieters, and compare translation of Ptolemy's "Manual the respective methods proposed, so as Tables," hereby rendering a new service to determine with precision, by means to astronomy. He is also prosecuting of that instrument, the specific weight “ Enquiries on the Zodiack of Deuof liquids. . M. Arago, reporter to the derah,” and professes to prove that it commission charged with this labour, does not reach higher than the year bas retraced some very accurate expe. 364 of the Christian æra. riments already made, by M. Gay- M. Coqnebert Montbret, reporter of Lussac, therein completely answering the “Commission of Statistics,” after MONTHLY MAG, No. 387.
announcing announcing the prizes decrced, notices once, there is reason to fear that facts the “Statistic Researches” of M. de will be inaccurately observed, and inChabrol, relative to the city of Paris, perfectly described. It has been hiand the department of the Seine. The therto believed, that the combination of rest of this work will shortly appear. chlore with percarbonated laydrogen,
Mention is next made of works re- contained cqual portions of these two lating to the colonies. M. de Jonnés substances. `M. Despretz has shown has commenced the publication of some that the volume of chlore is only half of useful memoirs on the “ Antilles ;" they that of the percarbonated hydrogen. are intended to complete the “ Natural M. Dulong, recently admitted into History of Guadaloupe and Martinico." the academy as a member, bas made some Certain other works have been collect- new discoveries on respiration, and os ing documents on the same islands; the causes of animal heat. He has were this plan extended to French found that the volume of carbonic acid, Gniana, and our establishments in the formed in the act of respiration, was Indian ocean, our colonies would be always less than that of the absorbed better known than many parts of the oxygen; experiments show it to be by interior of France.
one third, in birds and carnivorous quaM. B. dc Chateauneuf produced a drapeds, and by one tenth in the "Memoir on the Mortality of Women, herbivorous. He has, moreover, rearrived at Ages from Forty to Fifty.” marked, that there was constantly so. In this he proves by evidence, that ap- strong an exhalation of azote, ibat, pears undeniable, contrary to a received in herbivorous animals, the volume of opinion, that the mortality of men is air expired surpassed that of the air ingreater at this period than that of wo- spired, notwithstanding the dimination men. This consequence has been drawn of volume of the carbonic acid gas. from observations made in places ex. And, lastly, he has found the portion of tremely remote, and in very different heat, corresponding to that of the acid, climates; in the south of France, in the to be scarcely half of the total heat north of Russia, and in the intermediate yielded by the animal, unless it be car. countries.
nivorous; and that, in berbivorous A memoir of M. de Jonnès, on the kinds, it does not reach three quarters extent of lands susceptible of cultiva- of the same quantity. From these pretion in the French colonies, makes it mises, M. Dulong concludes that there plainly appear, that even one-third of remains some other cause, different the lands as yet not cleared, put into a from the fixation of oxygen, to account state of cultivation, would furnish sup- for animal heat in its totality. plies, not only for the consumption The loss sustained by the academy, in and manufactures of France, but for the death of M. Haüy, gave reason to exportation.
apprehend that the public would be de Messrs. P. Duchatelet and P. de prived of a complete edition of his Contreille, medical doctors of the fa- works, which the professor was preculty of Paris, have published some paring. Five volumes had already apRemarks on the River Bièvre. About peared, and the impression of the sixth the year 1790, the improvement of the and last is now proceeding, under the course of its waters, so as to render its inspection of M. Delafosse, popil of M. banks more salubrious, had formed the Haüy, and selected, by him, to cesubject of an interesting publication by operate in his labours. M. Hallé. A considerable part of the M. Constant Prevost, a skilful pato population of the Faubourg St. Mar- ralist, a pupil of M. Brongniart, has ceau are daily employed on its banks, traced the geological traits of Nar or in the vicinity, the importance of mandy and Picardy, from Calais to whose establishments would be greatly Cherbourg. At the two extremities of augmented, if the banks were lined with this line, nearly eighty leagues in extent, a wall of masonry, if a pavement were we ond rocks of a similar character; laid down on the soil, if toll.gates were these rocks appertain to the primitive removed, &c.
soil; and, in some measure, form the In chemistry, facts are, progressively, borders of the immense basin, in wbich accumulating, so as, in time, to form a are deposited the rows or shells of the geperal theory that may include them, posterior earths. The middle of this in all their relations, and reveal, as far basin is pretty near Dieppe; there we as it is possible, the causes and laws of perceive, only, such as are the most see their action. In such a state of the sci- perficial, and they are almost all brord
zontal. The intermediate shelves rise found to be buds. These disappeared, up, obliquely, on each side. M. Prevost in winter; but, in the spring, there aphas represented this sort of a natural peared a number, largeenough to recom: cup, in a drawing, which is rendered mence a new tree. still more intelligible by an ingenious M. Raffeneau Delille, professor of colouring. The grand divisions of the botany at Montpellier, and a corresland are distinguished, in their general pondent of the academy, has described character, and with their subdivisions, a singular plant, of the family of corand so all the facts that compose the bels, or gourds. On the same stalks it geological history of the country are in- bears hermaphrodite and male flowers. cluded. A description is subjoined of Its fruit, nearly two feet in length, and of the fossils, as well as of the couches or a proportionate thickness, is covered strata that contain them. Among with a resinous and inflammatory powothers, is a species of reptile, named der, plentiful enough to be gathered by ichthyosaurus, partaking of the nature scraping off. The author judges it to of a lizard and a fish, and the most be analogous to the vegetable wax of ancient, perhaps, that we are acqnainted the myrica cerifera of North America, with. There are, also, fishes, with some and to the same of the ceroxylum unknown species of crocodiles and andicola, discovered in the Cordilleras cerites, a species of shell-fish that abound by Messrs, de Humboldt and Bonpland. in the rocks, and are found scattered in M. Jacquin, from whom M. Delille lieaps, one among another, but sepa- received the grains of this plant, has rated by very thick strata of chalk, on named it beninaga cerifera. which none of them are found.
M. de Humboldt is publishing the M. Dutrochet las made additional tenth number of his superb Collection experiments on the direction which the of Mimosa, and, in conjunction with M. different parts of plants take, from ger. Kanth, the twenty-second number of mination to their complete develop the new Genera and Species of the Torment. He has found, that when grains rid Zone. M. Kantb bas published the are turned, and their axis of rotation is first volume of a Treatise, wherein he inclined to the horizon, though but 'examines, afresh, the Characters of the slightly, the two seminal caudexes take Genera of the Family of Mallows, also the same direction, and the radicle fol- those of the Ciliaceous and Butnera lows that inclination. If the axis be kind. perfectly horizontal, the two caudexes M. Richard, whose death in the course, take a direction in a tangent to the very of this year the academy have had to resmall circle described by the embryo. gret, had left a paper on the Family of In stalks that have leaves, when sub- the Balanophorcos, which has been mitted to the rotation, the Icaves turn presented by his son, a young botanist, their superior faces towards the centre of the worthy representative of a family, rotation, and the petiole, or supporting that, for near a century, has been renstalk, bends conformably to that dis- dering service to tbe science of vegeposition.
tables. M. Dupetit Thouars considers the M. Dupetit Thouars bas presented flower as a transmutation of the leaf, and the commencement of an History of the of the bud that depends on it. His ex- Plants of the Family of Orchis. This periments on tbe juice of vegetables, forms part of a Flora of the Isles of present facts wbich seem no further France and Bourbon, which M. D. T. connected with that substance than as it has been long employed upon. is an assemblage of vegetable fibres, Several physiologists attribute the such as would be no less observed in faculty of absorbing exclusively to the other assemblages that have not the lymphatic vessels; some others, howproperties of the juice. It is generally ever, allow it also to the veins, for all supposed that a tree, deprived of its that is not chyle. This question has bark, loses its power of vegetation. been, of late, the subject of renewed M. D. T. las peeled trees, for three discussion. M. Srgelas has communiyears together, and they have sustained cated to the academy, and repeated, no injury. He thinks the elm endures before its committee, some experiments, this mutilation the best, but the oak de which not only confirm, in general, the cays under it. A young peeled elm absorbent faculty of the veins, but produced, at first, some protuberances prove, also, that certain substances aro that took a greenish tint, and were soon only absorbed by those vessels, or, at least, that they are so, in a greater made on the nux vomica led to the same abundance, and more rapidly, than by conclusions ; no convulsions appeared in the lacteal vessels.
the meinbers of this fisi), the verves of M. Fodcra, a young Sicilian physi. which bad lost their anterior roots, but cian, has presented a Memoir, wherein those which had only retained their posbe considers absorption and exhalation terior roots had shocks as violent as if as a simple imbibition (imbibing) and a all the roots bad remained untouched. transudation, which depend only on the The effects of the irritation are not so organic capillarity of the tissue of the distinct; there appears a number of convessels. The same physiologist has re- tractions, mixed with sigus of seusibipeated, with great precision, the experi- lity, but the contractions excited by ments of Messrs. Woollaston, Brande, pinching or pricking the anterior roots and Marcet; which tend to prove that are marked more sensibly by ipfiuile certain substances pass directly from the degrees. stomach into the reins and bladder, M. Geoffroy St. Hilaire, who has prowithout being drawn into the circu- duced a work on monstrosities, bas lation.
been extending his researches to a ('omThe following details certain facts ob. · parison of the Organs of Dejection, and served by M. Majendic. The nerves those of Generation, in Birds, proceedare, at once, the organs of sentiment ing, at length, 10 compare the genital and of voluntary motion ; but these two organs in the two sexcs. Herein, all functions are not, entirely, depending the difficulties of the question are colone on the other; the former may be an. lected. In these respects, the author nihilated, without any diminution of the considers.thic monotremes, those extralatter, and vice versa. It has already ordinary quadrupeds of New Holland, been proved, that they bave different which unite the shoulders of a reptile seats in the masses which compose tbe with the beak of a bird, and the strucbrain. Anatomists have been long cn- ture of whose genital organs is so paradeavouring to ascertain whether they doxical, that, though they are bothave also, in the tissue of the nervous blooded, and have bodies covered with cordons, pendicles (des filets) exclu- bair, as quadrupeds, it is doubtfui whesively assigned to them ; but, hitberto, ther they are not oviparous, like reptiles, hypotheses have been advanced on this M. Geoffroy inclines to the affirmative, head rather than positive facts. The relying on the testimony of a travelier, experiments of M. Majendie may seem who vouches for having observed the to resolve this problem definitively. The fact; and, according to report, bas nerves that proceed from the spinal brought over to Europe some eggs of marrow derive their origin through two the ornithoryncus, the name of that sorts of roots or fillets, some anterior, singular species of animals. According others posterior, which unite at their to his account, which he professes to issuing from the spine, to form the trunk have received from the aboriginals of of each pair of nerves. M. Majendie, the country, the female prepares a nest, having opered the spine of the back of a wherein she deposits two eggs. young dog, without injuring the nerves, The organization of the lamprey las or its marrow, proceeded to cat the pos- never been correctly discriminated as to terior roots only of some nerves, and he any distinctive index of sex. Messrs. instantly perceived that the correspond- Majendje and Desmoulins have obing member was insensible to any punc- seried, in an individual of this species, turing or squct zing. He, at first, con- that it had an organ placed like the sidered it as paralysed; but soon, to his ovary of others; but, in its form or great surprise, saw it more very dis- structure, it was analogous to the organs tinctls. Three experiments producing of the male of the shad. At the same a similar effect, he was led to thiuk that time, and in the same river, another the posterior roots of the nerves might be Jamprey, smaller, with ovaries more especially appropriated to sensibility, prominent, and visibly filled with eggs, and the anterior to motion. He next was taken. Hence the former lamprey attempted to cut, separately, the ante. is supposed to be ouc of those males that rior roots, an operation much more dif- have been so long sought for: its liver ficult, and which, after a number of was of a dark green colour, the female's trials, he effected. The member then was of a reddish yellow. became laipt and motionless, but retain- Tbe approaches of the animal and ing the symptoms of sensibility. Trials vegetable kingdoms to each other, are by such of their respective species as are cles resemble small batoons or slaves. the most imperfect. The marine poly- Amongst the kinds that compose it is pus has long been considered as a that animalcule, which, according to the plant; for a longer time, still, it was observations of M. Gaillon, is the real ibouybt to be an intermediate being be- cause that produces the green colour of tween the two kingdoms; but there are
certain oysters: several other bodies that appear to be- M. Guyon has sent from Martinico long to the animal kingdom, although, the description of a lecchi, twenty indiduring a part of their existence, they viduals of which he found in the nasal exhibit all the phenomena of vegetables. fosses or cavities of a beron, (Ardea
They lare, pretty generally, becn virescens) of that island. If this were included in the family of conferves, the constant residence of that worm, (hairweed); Adanson, however, bad the fact would be remarkable, as we are observed voluntary movement in one of not acquainted with any other species of them, and M. G. Chantran bad noticed, leech that lives, constantly, in the intein some others, corpuscles which had all rior of other animals. the appearances and properties of infu- M. Lamouroux bas described the sory animalcules. To obtain correct no- polypus which inhabits a singular coral of tions in respect to this group of organ. ihe Indian seas, and has been called the ized beings, a rigid examination became organ.player (Tubiporu musica). M. necessary. This M. B. de St. Vincent Delamarck has terminated bis History bas undertaken; placing under a micro- of Animals non-vertebrated, the scventh scope all the filaments he had discovered, and last volume of wbich comprehends in salt or fresh water, tracing, atten- the Molluscæ, the most elevated in lively, their metamorphoses and deve- point of organization. The History of lopnienis, he has distinctly ascertained the Quadrupeds of the Menagerie, hy degrees of animality. The groupe of Messrs. F. Cuvier und Geoffroy Si. fragillariated show but few signs of Hilaire, has come to its 36th number. animai existence; the oscillariated have M. Devaucel has given the description a movement similar to what their name and drawings of several animals from expresses ; in thic conjugated, the fillets India; bis labours are enriching the at times draw ncar together, place them- cabinet of Natural History with a mulselves one beside and close to another, titude of val able objects. M. L. communicating and conjoining the co- Dolatour has also placed, in that vast Jonring matter with which their articula- depot, the collections that he formed in tions are replenished, by means of small India, as also M. Auguste de St. lateral holes or mouthis. One of the Hilaire, the produce of his excursions articulations is emptying, while another into the interior of Brazil. M. de Feris changing into one or several globulcs, rusac is proceeding on liis great work that appear to be the means of reproduc. respecting Molluscæ of the land and tion. The zoocarpated are those glo- of fresh water. He bas begun the debules which have assumed all the cha- scription of fresh-water shells found in racters of real animals. After a certain the fossile state, and instituted a compa. puniber of transformations, they burst rison between the living and fossile the case wherein the last metamorpbosis species, treating, also, of a kind but was effected, and then have a voluntary little known, to which begives the name movement, and swim about, rapidly, in of melanopsides. One point which lie every direction, like the animalcules 10 aims to prove is, that the different spce which the name of Volvox has been cies of this last genus, and of several given. At another period they again others that abound in potter's clay, and become fixed, extending, lengthways, in the lignites, in several lower regions by the successive appearance and of Europe, are the same as those now growth of several articles or joints accu. found alive in more southern countries. mulating into another filament, which In medicine and surgery, the number remailis motionless, tili, in its turn, it of memoirs is considerable. Ao account produces a fresh generation, in the of these, with the judgment of the acasame order as the preceding. Each of demy respecting tliem, is postponed. these groupes is divided into several M. de Humboldt has apnounced his kinds, according to the detailed circum- intention to rear and bring the vigon or stances accurately, specified by M. de llama'lo a state of domesticity, if prac. St. Vincent. To this numerous family ticable, previous to transporting ihem our naturalist has added another, which into Europe, where it is probablc they be terms bacilliarated, as these corpus- might live without degenerating,