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propensities without restraint. The Alexandria) a small tract ceded to the innumerable petty thefts which daily jurisdiction of the United States by pass unpunished, illustrate the latter the states of Maryland and Virginia. position, and the former was strikingly Its extent is a square of ten miles, exemplified during my late sojourn in unequally divided by the Patomac, a the neighbourhood. The adjoining magnificent river which here separates borough of Newcastle bad just been itself into two unequal branches, nearly the scene of a contested election; and at right angles to cach other, the area the defeated candidate, being a resi- between them having been selected, dent in the potteries, the potters, vastly by the advice of General Washington, exasperated at this rejection of their as the site of the national city, at prechampion, “vowed vengeance, and sent containing about 10,000 inhaperformed it too." Not an individual bitants. from Newcastle, suspected of having Of the city of Washington so much voted on the wrong side, could for has been said, and so little is generally some time pass along without experi- known, that I shall endeavoar to give encing gross abuse, if not actual some idea of its actual state from my violence; and the women connected own personal observation. with the obnoxious voters, who at- Let the reader imagine himself upor tended the pottery markets, were the summit of the Capitol Hill," a brutally attacked by beasts in the natural eminence of about eighty feet, shape of men, their persons mal- in the centre of the city. If his face treated, and their goods destroyed. be directed toward the S. E. he will Yet Messrs. Dogberry and Verges, the perceive the fort ou Greenleaf's Point, worthy constables, slept soundly and about two miles distant, at the fork of quietly at their posts, wbilst lawless the Patomac, from whence the river proceedings were carried on with flows downward in a straigbt stream, impunity for hours, which, under a a mile in width, to the city of Alexanwell-organized police, would not have dria, distapt eight miles, wbich is been suffered to continue as many distinctly seen in clear weather. Je minutes. Measures, however, are in now the spectator turn slowly to the contemplation for suppressing this cry. right, he will trace the course of the ing evil, and to the town of Hanley is main upward stream of the river, and, duc the honour of having taken the about a mile from the fort, will perceive lead in promoting them. The state of a wooden bridge, three-quarters of a the roads and footways is likewise very mile in length, (with a draw in the defective; they are, in many parts, in centre,) connecting the city with the vile condition, and are neither watched opposite shore, and cominunicating nor lighted, though coal costs little with the high road to Alexandria. beyond the trouble of carrying it, and Inclining more to the right he will gas could therefore be brought into continue to pursue the river, at length general use throughout the potteries, “Tiber Creek,” and some clustered as it already is in Newcastle, at an buildings, will appear to variegate the extremely cheap rate, and greatly to hitherto unbroken nakedness of the the well-being of the inhabitants. area of the American Metropolis. The few more blemishes might be noticed, buildings now increase upon the view, but I will not make so ungrateful a some ornamental trees at length prereturn for the hospitable reception I sent themselves, and presently the experienced here, as to dwell any “Pennsylvania Avenue" appears reachlonger upon

“the nakedness of the ing from the foot of the Capitol Hill, land,” and point out its deficiencies nearly to, and almost in a line with, the with invidious minuteness; therefore, President's mansion. A busy and farewell!

uninterrupted line of buildings may be The DRUID IN LONDON. traced nearly from the foot of the hill Oct. 7, 1823.

to Georgetown, on the Patomac, about

two miles off. The President's man. For the Monthly Magazine. sion, a handsome stone building 170 WASHINGTON; and the CAPITOL, or feet by 80, and the government offices, CONGRESS HALL.

in its immediate vicinity, midway beNHE city of Washington, the seat tween the Capitol and Georgetown,

of government of the United form a conspicuous feature of the scene, States of America, is situated in the which in this direction is particularly district of Columbia, (which also con- interesting from the picturesque com. ains Georgetown, and the city of bination of trees and buildings, backed 2


by the clear waters of the Patomac, respectable but modest mansion, surand the gentle bills which crown the rounded by an extensive and valuopposing banks of the river, clothed able domain: the ornamental grounds with luxuriant cedar woods, and extend to the river, whose right bank sprinkled with the villas of the wealthy rises at that point with peculiar maland-holders of the vicinage; among jesty above the surface of his translucid these the seat of Mr. Custiss is most waters; and at the verge of the lawn, distinguished. Continuing to turn to in a vault of the simplest structure, the right, the buildings and the river beneath the placid shelter of luxuriant gradually disappear; the vacant but cedars are eintombed the remains of now undulating site of the city, inter- him whose naine is borne by a capital sected, however, with good roads, or city, and who by the universal voice of avenues, presents itself; but, were it his compatriots has been styled, “ The not that the distant view is by no first in peace, the first in war, and the means uninviting, the scene would be first in the hearts of his countrymen.” altogether devoid of interest. Fur- The city of Washington is 500 miles ther to the right a considerable number from Boston; 248 from New York; of scattered dwellings of a respectable 144 from Philadelphia; 42 from Balorder are seen on the Capitol Hill, in timore; 133 from Richmond, in Virthe immediate vicinity, and on a level ginia; 232 from Halifax, in North with the spectator, whose back will Carolina; 630 from Charleston, in now be turned towards Alexandria, South Carolina; 794 from Savannah, while his eyes are pursuing the high in Georgia; and a road partly executed road to Baltimore; presently his back to New Orleans, is estimated to exceed will be towards Georgetown, and he 1000 miles in length. will look towards the “ Navy Yard," The Capitol, or Congress-Hall, in situated on the “ Eastern Branch ;" the city of Washington, is at the sumbut, although there is a considerable mit of the hill which bears its name, number of buildings in this direction, and affords the view of the circumjaand notwithstanding the Navy Yard cent city already described. It is a is itself a large establishment, the structure 348 feet in frunt; the mateelevation of the intervening land and rial of the external walls is a yellowish, houses prevents them from making strong, and apparently durable, sandmuch appearance. A road from the stone, found at a moderate distance, Capitol in this direction, is terminated but the substance of the interior walls by a very neat and commodions wooden is of brick. The lower or basementbridge, across the Eastern Branch, floor consists entirely of common olliwhich is about a furlong and a half ces, and apartments, with the excepin width, but this bridge is not visible tion of a portion of the western wing from the Capitol Hill. Continuing to beneath the Senate Chainber, which is turn, there are still some respectable appropriated to the Court-room of the dwelling-houses to be seen in the im- Supreme Judicature of the United mediate neighbourhood : the lower States. part of tho Navy Yard now makes its The principal floor of the Capitol is appearance; the Eastern Branch, and immediately above the basement. The its luxuriant opposing shores, come Hall of Representatives is suited to the into view; the Navy Yard disappears, reception the members, in number the Eastern Branch gradually expands, between 2 and 300. The columns the prospect insensibly widens, and supporting the roof are of a peculiar the vacant site of the city is seen be- stune, called Patomac marble, a surt tween the straggling houses on the of pudding-stone, intensely hard, and Capitol Hill; the fort on Greenleaf's which, when polished, has the same Point again appears, and the magnifi- appearance as the section of cold cent prospect down the main stream mock-turtle soup, except that the tints of the Patomac, beyond Alexandria, are less powerful ; the effect is very terininates the circuit at the point handsome. The capitals are of stawhence it began.

tuary marble, and were carved in A few milcs below Alexandria tho Italy, in imitation of those in the river inclines to the left; were it not Choragic Monument of Lysicrates, at for this deviation, a glass of moderate Athens; the entablature corresponds power would descry, at about fourteen with the columns, and the ceiling is miles distance, “Mount Vernon,” the half domed. The entablature above seat of the immortal Washington, a the colonnade or skreen, behind the



Speaker's seat, is surmounted by a population in large towns, in which statue of Liberty, with the American cleanliness ought to be the first coueagle, and other national emblems. sideration. The air should be kept At a proper elevation, between the pure by every means buman invention semi-circular colonnade and the gene- can devise, to promote the bealth of ral rectangular inclosure, is the space a large population, who are crowdappropriated to the gallery for stran- ed together in streets where the circugers, beneath which are several small lation of air is frequently stopped ; apartments.

and, if any filth should lie upen The opposite or western wing of the the ground, it must in some degree Capitol contains the Senate Chamber. infect the air, and consequently injure This chamber, though finished in an the health of the people. Cleanliness elegant style, will not bear comparison, is absolutely necessary to every street. in point of grandeur, with the Hall of The pavement of the Scotch Purbeck Representatives; it rises through two stone has many advantages : it is stories of the building, and its ceiling durable, and easily swept by scarenis a half dome: the skreen consists of gers, that all filth liable to a double height of Ionic and Corinthian putridity is removed. When beavy columns and antæ, exquisitely worked rain falls, it washes every street, and in marble.

carries all the dirt into the sewers; by The Grand Vestibule, in the centre which means the streets are rendered of the building, (which was incomplete perfectly sweet, and the air is purified. when I left Washington,) is nearly The inhabitants are thus refreshed by 100 feet in diameter, surmounted by a the improved state of the atmosphere. dome, and may be considered more as I am of opinion that roads cannot be a place of show than of general utility: kept so perfectly clean and bealtby as it is intended to be adorned with a pavement: for, if any putrid matter paintings and sculpture, illustrative of is laid in the street in hot weather, it the national history. The Library is most penetrate more into roads than is spacious and handsome, and is open possible in the pavement, and is not sa to all the members of Congress. The easily scraped off. All the care that remainder of the plan is occupied by can be devised will not render the offices of state, committee-rooms, anti- road so clean and pure as the parerooms, vestibules, and passages; some ment. In winter the highway will be of which are beautiful in their effects, very sludgey, and all the crossings and others would be much more so, bad; so that there will be a difficulty were it not for a deficiency of light. in walking from one side of the street The interior architectural detail is to the other without being over your generally in the Grecian taste. shoes in mud, which is proved in all

The external elevation was princi- the roads about London; for, where pally designed by a French architect; there is any great crossing, it is neces. the interior is almost exclusively the sary to pave it, for the convenience of work of the late Benjamin Henry the public: this proves low impractiLatrobe, esq. an English architect, who cable it will be to keep the streets so received his professional education clean upon Mr. M*Adai's pian as they under the late James Wyatt, esq. R.A. are at present. and by whom the interior of the I hope the above observations will be structure was nearly re-built after its well considered before any steps are destruction during the late war. taken to change the present comforts London, 1823. C. A. BUSBY. that are enjoyed, for any new plan that

may endanger the health of the inhalsiTo the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. tants of London. The reads have

most certainly been greatly in prored 1

LATELY read the report of Mr. by Mr. M'Adam's plap; isnt, because

M'Adam's opinion on the subject the roads have been benefited, is it to of removing the pavement from streets, be concluded that cities and towns and substituting the mode now prac- will be equally so? I have mostly tised in making roads, by laying a bed found, that any scheme which proves of broken Purbeck stone. "As this is beneficial in one instance, is generally a subject that requires cool and deli- taken up with great warmth; and, like a berate reflection, it is necessary to quack medicine, is foolishly estixisted ascertain, how far bis proposed alte- to be good in every way. ration may endanger the health of the Sept. 3, 1813.

S. W.




For the Monthly Magazine. thy refusal wil make the enmity eterELUCIDATIONS of PORTIONS of ENGLISH Dal between the two people, and human

HISTORY improperly REPRESENTED in blood will never cease to flow." our GENERAL HISTORIES.

When the niece of Edgar had at History of the Invasion of England by last consented, her ancient name of

the Normans in the Eleventh Century; Edith was changed to that of Maand the Consequences of that Invasion tilda, which had loss of a Saxon down to the Thirteenth.

character, and was, jo consequence, (Continued from p. 209.)

less offensive to Norman ears.t This THE same policy which influenced precaution was not the only one ne

Henry to seek the alliance of the cessary, for among the Normans there English people, decided him to marry was a strong party opposed to the a woman of Anglo-Saxon blood. There marriage. This party was composed was then in England an orphan daughi- of the enemies of Henry, who saw with ter of Margaret, the sister of King alarm the strength it would give him Edgar and of Malcolm the King of among the English population; or the Scotch. She had been brought up some perbaps who, influenced by the at Romsey Abbey, under tho affee- solitary feeling of pride and hatred, tionate care of another sister of Edgar, were indignant that a Saxon woman Christine or Christian, who had taken should become the Queen of the the veil in 1086, when her brother had Normans. Their ill-will, however, abandoned all hope of restoring his created a thousand difficulties. They own fortunes, and the fortunes of his asserted that Matilda, bred up from country. As the daughter of a Scot- her infancy in a convent among nuns, tish king, she had been sought in mar- had been devoted to God by her pariage by many of the Norman captains, rents. It was reported that she had after the death of her father; and had publicly worn the veil; and the marbeen asked of William the Red by riage, wbich it was wished to prevent, Alain the Red, connt of the Bretons; was openly declared a profanation; it but this Alain died before the king's was, in consequence, to the great joy consent had been obtained. Guillaume of many of the Normans. A monk of de Garenne was the next suitor; but Bec, named Anseline, had succeeded the cause of his not possessing her is Lanfranc in the Archbishoprio of Canunknown.* Such was the woman terbary. Historians render bim this destined to be the wife of the third singular testimony,—that he was beNorman king, by those who saw the loved by the English as if he were an necessity of obtaining the support of a Englisliman. While Lanfranc, carconquered people against the partizans rying into effect his project of destroyof Robert. "Many of the English nou- ing the reputation of all the Saxon rished the foolish hope, that the good saints, attacked the beatification of old times of English happiness would Elfeg. (who bal boen killed in 912 by return, when the descendant of their the Danish invaders,) Anselme, then king should be the wife of the fo- pothing but a Norman monk, happenreigner. Those who were united to od to visit England; and the prelate, the family of Edgar by any bond of in the fury of bis batred against the blood or of affection, hastened to the saints of the people, insulted the meyoung maiden, and implored ber to mory of Elfeg, and spoke seornfully of consent to the marriage. She mani- bis pretended inartyrdom. “He was fested the strongest disgust; but was a martyr,-a genuine martyr, (replied so borne down by their solicitations, Anselme ;) he died for his country. that she consented from pure weari- Elfeg died for the sake of justice, as ness, and quite against ber will.t John died for the sake of truth ; and They repeated to her to saticty, both for Christ, who is both truth and "Most generous of women! ir ihou justice.'ll The friendship of Anselme wilt, thou shalt raise out of its grave for the conquerors, ma rare virtue the ancient honour of England, -thou

among shalt be a token of alliance,-a pledge of reconciliation; but, if thou refuse,

Mait. Paris. 40.

t Ord. Vir. 702. Ord. Vil. 702.

Eadmer, 12. Matt. Paris, 10. Tandem stdio con

Vita Lantranci. ficta.

| Anglia Sacra, ii. 162. Monthly Mag. No. 388.

2 Q.

among the people of his race,-made chastity."* Anselme replied, that he him an active partisan of the marriage; approved of their decision; and, a few but, when the reports which were cir- days afterwards, he celebrated the culated with respect to Matilda reach- marriage of the Norman king with the ed his ear, he declared that he would Saxon maiden ; but, before the celenever consent to take a spouse from bration took place, he mounted on an God, to give her to a carnal husband. elevation before the gates of Le However, to convince himself of the church, and explained to his hearers real truth, be determined to interro- the debates and the decisions of the gate Matilda himself. She denied “grave men" whom he had con Foktu. that she had ever been devoted to Eadmer, a Saxon priest of Canterbury, God; she declared that she had never and an eye-witness, narrates these willingly taken the veil, and she offer- events. “But (says Eadmer.) all this ed to prove it before all the prelates could not subdue the malice of beant of England. “I own (said she,) that of certain men,”-those Normans who I have often appeared veiled; but it complained of the humiliation of their was because in early youth, when un- king. They loaded him and his Engder the care of my aunt Christine, she lish wife with scorn and mockery. was accustomed to cover my face with They called them Godric and Godgite, a piece of black stuff, to protect me (Saxon words,) as terms of derision from the open lubricity of the Norman and opprobrium.f “Henry knew it, youths, who had no respect for female -heard it, (says an old historian,) and chastity. If I refused to wear it, she affected to burst into laughter; bat be treated me very liarshly. I wore it in concealed his inward indignation, and her presence; but when she was away answered the insults of fools with a I threw it on the ground, and tram- forced silence.”t When Duke Ropled on it with childish rage."

bert disembarked in Normandy, many Anselme did not choose to pronounce of the great personages of Englaad individually a decision in this business. hastened to him; others promised him He convoked, in the city of Rochester, assistance on his arrival: their mes. an assembly of bishops, abbots, monks, sengers urged him to activity, assuring and laity; and the witnesses who were him that he had only to cross the examined confirmed the statements of channel to be king, and to lower to the Saxon maiden. Two archdeacons, bis proper rank the “Godfather -Guillaume and Hombarild, were Godric.”'ll sent to the convent where she had been T he English faithfully served him brought up, and the sisterhood con- to whom they were pledged. They firmed her statement. When the were pleased, indeed, with an oppormeeting was about to deliberate, An- tunity of gratifying their batred by the selme retired, lest he should be sup- destruction of Normans, though they posed to exercise a personal influence fought under a Norman banner. on their decision; and, when he re-en- Henry vanquished his brother, but the tered, the Norman clerk, who was miserable triumphs of the Anglocharged to deliver their opinion,t thus Saxons,-flattering as they were to expressed himself: “We think the their pride, their vanity, or even their young woman is free, and may dispose patriotism,-brought no consolation, of her body. We are authorised by a no cessation of suffering, to their subdetermination of the venerable Lan- dued race. They conquered enemies, franc, when a great number of mar- indeed, but it was on bchals of other ried and unmarried women,—who had enemies; for, ilough Henry had marfled for refuge to the convents, and ried a Saxon,-though he borc a Sason had taken the veil, to secure themselves nick name,-he was a Normal at from the warriors of the great William, heart; and his favourite minister, the the conqueror of this country,-re- Count de Meulant, was distinguisbed quired their liberty. Upon the advice for bis scorn and hatred of the Roglish of a general council, Lanfranc decided, people. The popular voice denomithat they could not be compelled to

nated continue to wear the veil, and that Wilkins acta cociliorum, 9.0 1075, they were entitled to high praise for + Will. Malmsb. 156. their determination to preserve their # Ib.

Ib. * Eadmer, 57.

|| Godrych Godsadyr. (H. Krughlon, # Ib.


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