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range of temperature: bat it bas not last year of Vespasian. The overhitherto been generally known, that from wbelming of the Campanjan towns ap the fixed point above mentioned, a ca- pearing to this naturalist to have sodpability for being softened commences denly bappened, in a manner very and increases through a certain range of different from dry ashes carried by the decreasing temperature, accordingly as wind. the heat given to the steel falls short of Depth of Rain amually at Bombay. the fixed point, at the instant of being - Mr. BENJAMIN NOTEN, a resident at suddenly plunged into water, or other- Bombay, in the East Indies, has for wise suddenly cooled. In preparing more than six years past carefully steel articles which reqnire to be pla. registered, by means of Howard's nished or lammer-hardened, this disco- pluviometer, at seven o'clock in the Verý proves of important service, by ena. morning of each day, the depths of rain bling the skilful workmen to heat his which may bave fallen in the previous steel to the precise proper degree, under night and day. The annual iotals of that fixed one (where no bardening or which depths are as follows:softening would ensue, as above men

In 1817

103679 incies. tioned,) and suddenly then to plunge it

1818

81.14 under water; by which proofs, the steel

1819

77.10 is found more uniformly and better

1820

77.34 softened, or annealed, than by any pre

1821

82.99 viously known process. Steel-wires or

1822

11761 rods, of the various sizes, and under one

Whence it would appear, that the quanor two feet lengths, may be preserved tity of rain decreased annually to a perfectly straight in the bardening, by minimum quantity in 1819, and since laying them, properly beated, on a thick then increased again with considerable flat cold plate of iron or other metal, regularity; and it is perhaps also worthy (or, perhaps, a stone might answer,) and of remark, that this dry year in Bombay immediately rolling another sach plate needle in England attained its greatest

was the same in which the magnetie over them, and continuing the rolling operation, until the wires or rods are

western variation; and when also the cold; by which simple means, the un

seasons of our climate were in so extraequal cooling, and the consequent warp. usual routine. Perhaps some of our

ordiuary a degree varied from their ing and setting of the steel, will be prevented; and doubtless, flat plates of ingenious readers. may have access to a steel might by similar means be harden- series of magnetic and rain observations ed; using suficiently large and very flat in Bombay, sufficiently long kept to be cooling plates, and adopting the princi- able to show whether there are there ple of the plate-glass grinder's move-cpustaotly recurring periods of wet end ments, in moving the upper plate.

dry seasons ? and, if so, wbat have bees Mount Vesuvius.—M. HUMBOLDT,

the lengths of those periods, and dates and M. Rose, an eminent chemist of of their greatest and least depths of rain? Beriin, and M. Monticelli and M. Or whether, if no such periods can be Covelli, all concur in contradicting traced in the journals of years that are the assertions of two Neapolitan che passed, the deficiency of rain in 1819 mists, that the ashes ejected from Vesn- and 20 bad any notable connection vius in the last great eruption, contain with the maguetic phenomena of that portions of gold and silver. M. Hum.

place? boldt has also ascertained, from numc

Amongst the singular properties of rous measurements, that fifteen to Napthaline, a new substarce is obtained eighteen inches is the greatest thick by the distillation of the coal-tar made ness, independent of wind-drifts, of the

at the gas-works; offensive as the sameli dry ashes lately strewed on any of the of this tar is, Mr. CHAMBERLAJN

has plains near this volcano; and this thick- found that the first product of the sute ness he believes to amount to three limation of napthaline is a fluid, swert times as much as all the ashes collec- to the taste, and of a higbly aromatic tively, which have fallen over the same

and that, if napthaline be tritaor similar plain spaces (accordingly as

rated in a mortar with nitric acid, a the wind has been different.) since the butyraceous componnd is formed, wlich untimely death of the elder Pliny, in the smells exactly like new hay.

BRITISH

smell ;

BRITISH LEGISLATION:

ACTS Passed in the FOURTH YEAR of the Reign of GEORGE THE FOURTH, or in the

FOURTH SESSION of the seveNTH PARLIAMENT of the UNITED KINGDOM. YAP. XX. For fixing the Rates of the gradual Discontinuance of the Dukeepers and others on quartering Sol- nufacture of Great Britain and Ireland diers.

respectively, on their Importation into Cap. XXI. For granting and apply- either Country from the other. ing certain Sums of Money for the Cap. XXVII. To amend an Act Service of the Year 1823.

passed in the 7th year of the Reign of his Cap. XXII. To confirm an Agree- late Majesty King George the Third, ment entered into by the Trustees under respecting Justices of the Quorum in an Act of the last Session of Parliament, Cities and Towns Corporate. for apportioning the Burthen occasioned Cap. XXVIII. Por the more speedy by the Military and Naval Pensions, Reduction of the Number of Serjeants, and Civil Superannuations, with the Go- Corporals, and Drummers, in the Miliorrnor and Company of the Bank of tia of Ireland, when not in actual England.

Service. Cap. XXIII. To consolidate the Cap. XXIX. To increase the Power several Boards of Customs, and also the of Magistrates, in Cases of Apprenticeseveral Boards of Excise, of Great Bri- ships. tain and Ireland.

Cap. XXX. To regulate the ImporCap. XXIV. To make more effec- tation and Erportation of certain Artitual Provision for permitting Goods cles subject to Duties of Excise, and imported to be secured in Warehouses, certain other Articles the Produce or or other Places, without Payment of Manufacture of Great Britain and IreDuty on the first Entry thereof. land respectively, into and from either

Cap. XXV. For regulating the Country from and to the other. Number of Apprentices to be taken on- Cap. XXXI. To amend an Act board British Merchant Vessels ; and passed in the 19th year of the Reign of for preventing the Desertion of Seamen his late Majesty King George the Second, therefrom.

intituled "An Act more effectually to Sec. 1. 80 much of the 37 G. 3, c. 73. prevent profane Cursing and Swearing" as requires the masters of vessels trading Provision of recited Act requiring ihie to the West Indies to bave apprentices on- same to be read quarterly in all parish board, repealed.

churches, &c. repealed, 2.- After Jan. 1, 1824, the number of Cap. XXXII. For the amendment apprentices shall be proportioned to the of the Laws respecting Charitable Loan lonnage.

Societies in Ireland. $3.-Not to affect any Act not amended

Cap. XXXIII. To make more effecor repcaled by this Act, by which vessels tual Regulations for the Election, and to are required to have apprentices on-board. 4.--Apprentires exempted from im

secure the Performance of the Duties, of pressment,

County Treasurers in Ireland. $ 5.- Apprentice may be employed in

Cap. XXXIV. To enlarge the any ship of which his master is captain or Powers of Justices in determining Comowner, and may be transferred.

plaints between Masters and Servants, 07.-Mates of ships of a certain burthen and between Masters, Apprentices, Artiexempt from impressment.

ficers, and others. $ 9.-Deserters from ships to forfeit all Cap. XXXV. To enable Trustees or wages, and all claims thereio.

Commissioners under Acts of Parliament 11.-Wages to be paid over to Greenwich Hospital, and applied, if claim be not tion, although they may not have met

to meet and carry such Acts into Execuestablished before two justices within six according to the Directions of such Acts. inonths after deposit.-But persons unjustly withholding wages, lo pay double

Cap. XXXVI. To discourage the The amonnt, aud treble costs.

granting of Leases in Joint Tenantcy in $ 12.-Act not to prevent seamen en

Ireland. tering into bis Majesty's service, or subject

Cap. XXXVII. To amend an Act them to the forfeiture of their wages. for the more speedy Return and Levying

Cap. XXVI. To repeal the Duties of Fines, Penalties, and Forfeitures, on certain Articles, and to provide for and Recognizances estreated.

Cap. Cap. XXXVIII. For settling the Cap. XLII. To amend the several Compensatim to the Holders of certain Acts for the Assistance of Trade and Offices in the Courts of Law in Ireland, Manufactures, and the Support of Con abolished under an Act passed in the 1st mercial Credit, in Ireland. and 2d years of the Reign of his present Cap. XLIII. To regulate the Amount Majesty,

for regulating the same. of Presentments by Grand Juries, fer Cap. XXXIX. to continue an Act Payment of the Public Officers of the of the last Session of Parliament, for several Counties in Ireland. allowing a Drawback of the whole of the Cap. XLIV. To repeal the Duties Duties of Customs on Brimstone used and Drawbacks on Barilla imported into and consumed in Great Britain, in the the United Kingdom, and to grant other making and preparing Oil of Vitriol or Duties and Drawbacks in lieu thereof. Sulphuric Acid

Cap. XLV. For allowing Persons Cap. XL. To amend several Acts to compound for their Assessed Tares for the Regulation of the Linen and for the Remainder of the Periods of Hempen Manufactures in Scotland. Composition limited by former Ads;

Cap. XLI. Por the registering of and for giving Relief in certain Caxs Vessels.

therein mentioned.

VARIETIES, LITERARY AND MISCELLANEOUS;

Including Notices of Works in Hand, Domestic and Foreign.

A ,

MeteoROLOGICAL Society has United Kingdom be solicited to co-operate and, from the nature of its subjects, nications to it; and that this Society will which require simultaneous distant always be ready to receive meteorological observations, it is likely to render observations from the cultivators of itself most useful in promoting the science thronghont the varions quarters study of nature. Its constitution is

That no other qnalification be required of a liberal character; and, till after

to constitute eligibility to this Society the 12th of November, all friends of than a desire to promote the science of such pursuits will be admitted mem- Meteorology. bers, on paying their two guineas to That after the next meeting the election Mr. Wilford, the secretary, at the be by ballot, upon the proposition of London Coffee-house. Among the three, and that a majority of members gentlemen present at its institution decide. were Drs. T. Forster, Clutterbuck,

That this meeting do adjourn to the Shearman, Mr. Luke Howard, &c. 12th of November next, to mett at the The chair was taken by Dr. Birkbeck, --As there are no patural phenomena and the following resolutions were

with which men are more intimately agreed to: That the formation of a Society, to pro

concerned than with atmospherical mote the advancement of Meteorology, changes; and of these, strange as it have the cordial approbation of this may seem, less is known than of most meeting.

other subjects of nature, so the new That a Society, be formed, to be called Society promises great practical uti“ the Meteorological Society of London.” lity, and seems likely to reap a rich

That the business of this Society shall and glorious harvest of important disbe condncted by a president, vice-presi- coveries. All the leading branches dents, treasurer, secretary, and conncil; of science are now provided in London and that the number of vice-presidents with societies, composed of efficient and members of the council be determined and operative members. Thus we at a subsequent meeting.

haveThat Mr. Thomas Wilford be requested to officiate as secretary to this Society

The Society of Arts. (pro tempore), and that he be authorized

The Linnean Society.

The Horticultural Society. to send a printed summons to attend the

The Medical Society. next meeting, to each person who shall be

The Mathematical Society. come a subscriber. That an annual subscription of two

The Geological Society. guineas be paid in advance by every mem

The Astronomical Society. ber of this Society.

And the Meteorological Society. That scientific men throughout the

-We seem to want only a CHEMICAL s

SOCIETY,

Society, of the same active character wick, ancestors of the kings of Great as the others, and the range will then Britain of the Guelphio dynasty, with be complete. These various societies portraits of the most illustrious of seem, in truth, to have superseded the these princes, from drawings made old Royal Society.

from ancient statues and paintings by Mr. William Belsham will shortly the old masters, expressly for this publish the ninth and tenth volumes work. of the Memoirs of George the Third, Mr. WIROMAN is preparing for the continued from the Peace of Amiens press, a faithful translation, from the to the conclusion of the Regency. original German, of Kant's celebrated

In a few weeks will be published, an work, entitled “the Critic of Pure Introduction to the Study of the Reason." Anatomy of the Human Body, parti- Batavian Anthology, or Specimens cularly designed for the use of pain- of the Dutch Poets, with remarks on ters, sculptors, and artists in general; the poetical literature and language of translated from the German of J. H. the Netherlands, by John BOWRING Lavater, and illustrated by twenty- and HARRY S. VAN Dyk, esqrs. will seven lithographic plates.

speedily be published. The adulteration of paper intended A poem, entitled Clara Chester, by for printing books, by a large admix- the author of “Rome,” and “the Vale ture of gypsum, introduced during the of Chamouni," will be published in a process of manufacture, is said to have few weeks. become prevalent, even to the extent Capt. Parry has returned from his of upe-fourth of the weight of the exploring voyage in the Arctic Seas. paper: a sample, which had the He has failed in the chief object of the appearance of good paper, was lately expedition; and, owing to some unfound, on examination by an eminent happy election of his course, did not chemist, to contain twelve per cent. of proceed so far west by twenty degrees, calcareous earth, instead of about one nor north by ten degrees, as in his per cent. of accidental earthy impuri, former voyage. The wiseacres who ties, which the best papers are found had promulgated their brain discoto contain. A contemporary journal very of a Polar basin free from ice, in describes this fraud to be effected by that exclusive vehicle of official abmixing gypsum with the rags; but surdities, the Quarterly Review, pro'more probably, we think, the gypsum, bably sent the gallant captain in reduced by grinding to the state of a search of their wonderful basin, in the fine powder, is mixed with the pulp narrow seas north of Hudson's Bay. immediately before it is made into But, with whomsoever the project paper. We call on the commissioners, originated, it seems that in these hopesurveyors, and supervisors, of excise, less and unpromising straits and golphs under the immediate superintendance the ships have been blocked up for of whose subaltern officers all paper is two winters, and part of three summade, to do their duty to the public, mers, Well might Franklin, who was in detecting and bringing to justice sent in another direction, see nothing the practisers of this shameful fraud; of them in a route twenty degrees and that like measures may be extend- more westward. The geographers of ed to the manufacture of thick brown Europe and America will be disappapers and paste boards, to prevent pointed at such a comedy of errors the large admixture of clay therein, and cross-purposes, and will unite which is common.

with us in astonishment, that such an In a few days will appear, a Series expedition should have been sent from of Dialogues between an Oxford Europe to explore any supposed outTutor and a Disciple of the new Com- lets from Hudson's Bay, wbile we have mon-Sense Philosophy, in which the forts and commercial establishments mechanical principles of matter and in the same Bay, whence any desiramotion will be accurately contrasted ble reconnoisances might at any time with the theories of occult powers have been directed. Lancaster Sound which are at present cherished by the appears to be the high road to nautical universities and royal associations glory in these seas, and it surprizes us throughout Europe.

that any other route should bave been Sir ANDREW Halliday has nearly sought. Nevertheless, we

arc perready for the press, the Lives of the suaded that every thing which skill, Dukes of Bavaria, Saxony, and Bruns- perseverance, and courage, could

effect,

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effect, has been performed by the com- some account of the manners and mander and bis crews; and no blame customs of Greece, anecdotes of the attaches, except to the planners of the military chiefs, &c ; being the result voyage, who probably thought of little of materials collected during his besides the realization of their own recent visit to the Morea and lonian theory of a Polar basin, or of a sea of Islands. wonderful water, which would not The Company for supplying Portafreeze at the usual temperature. Va ble Gas, from their works in St. Johorious details, designed to amuse the street, Clerkenwell, have commenced gaping vulgar, and divert attention the supply of shop-keepers and others from the serious business of the expe- with portable lamps; within or attachdition, are appearing in the newspa- ed to the stands of which lamps (of pers; but, as these are of the most com- Gordon's patent construction,) is a mon-place character, and are to be magazine charged with compressed found in all books treating of the oil-gas, of the very best quality, for northern nations, we forbear to intrude economically affording light, in quanthem on our readers. In our opinion, tities sufficient for one or more nights' the less is said the better; though we consumption. They assert, that the have no doubt that, besides paying all cost of their light will not be inore than the expences of the voyage, the public half that of iallow-candles : their serwill ere long, as usual, be called upon vants are to call daily on their regular to pay threc or four guideas for a 4to. customers, with a store of charged containing about as much valuable in- magazines, from which to exchange formation as is usually given in one of all the exliansted ones, and to put the the two-penny weekly miscellanies. lamps into a state ready for instant

We have from time to time noticed lighting, without more trouble to the the value and importance of the customers than merely turning a cock, Mechanics' Instituteat Glasgow,found- and applying a light to the burner. ed by Professor GEORGE BIRKBECK, Letters between Amelia and her now of London, consisting of a course Mother, from the pen of the late of lectures for instructing artizans in WILLIAM Combe, esq. the author of the scientific principles of the arts and “the Tours of Dr. Syntax," will manufactures. It was well attended speedily appear, in a pocket volume. in Glasgow; and bas been of such Mr. GAMBLE is about to publish, palpable use in that city, that a simi- Charlton, or Scenes in the North of lar institution is very properly pro- Ireland. posed in London, and will, we have A new division of the “ World in no doubt, be as much more useful Miniature,", containing the Netheras the same classes in London are lands, will be published on the 1st of more numerous than in Glasgow. December, in oue volume,with eighteen

Dr. Conquest is preparing a work coloured engravings. for the press, which will contain a Miss JANE HARVEY will shorty reference to every publication on publish Montalyti, a Camberland Midwifery, and a register of the innu- tale. merable essays and cases which are The Albigenses, a romance, by the scattered through periodical pamphlets Rev. C. R. MATURIN, will be published and the transactions of various socie- in November. ties, or casually referred to in works A new poem, entitled a Midsummer not exclusively obstetric. It will form Day's Dream, will speedily appear, a second volume to the third edition from the pen of Mr. Atherstone. of his “ Outlines," and will be speedilyA new monthly Asiatic journal will followed by a similar publication on be commenced on the 1st of January, the Diseases of Women and Children. entitled the Oriental Herald and

The first number of a Zoological Colonial Advocate: it will be con- Journal, to be continued quarterly, ducted by Mr. J.S. BUCKINGHAM, late and edited by T. Bell, esq F.l.s. cditor of the “ Calcutta Journal," with J. G. CHILDREN, esq. F.R. and L.s. the view of affording an opportunity J. de CARLE SOWERBY, esq. F.L.S. and for promoting, by enquiry and discusG. B. SOWERBY, F.L.s. will appear on sion, tbe important interests, literary, the 1st of January next.

political, and commercial, of the Mr. BLAQUIERE has in the press, a British empire in both the Indies. volume on the Origin and Progress Mr. Buckingham's qualifications for of the Greek Revolution, together with this undertaking will be generally

acknowledged ;

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