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nect or to continue a sentence by expressing an addition, a supposition, a cause, &c.

79. The conjunction disjunctive serves not only to connect and continue the sentence, but also to express opposition of meaning in different degrees.

OF INTERJECTIONS. 80. Interjections are words thrown in between the parts of a sentence, to express the passions or emotions of the speaker.

SYNTAX. 81. Syntax treats of the agreement and construction of words in a sentence.

82. A sentence is an assemblage of words forming complete sense.

83. A phrase is two or more words rightly put together, making sometimes part of a sentence, and sometimes a whole sentence.

84. Syntax principally consists of two parts; Concord and Government.

85. Concord is the agreement which one word has with another, in gender, number, case, or person.

86. Government is that power which one part of speech has over another, in directing its mood, tense, or case. SYNTAX OF THE DIFFERENT CASES OF NOUNS AND PRO


NOMINATIVE CASE. Rule 1. The nominative case, except the case absolute, or when an address is made, relates to some verb expressed or understood.

Rule 2. A verb agrees with its nominative, in number and person.

Rule 3. The infinitive mood, or part of a sentence, is sometimes used substantively, and performs the office of a nominative case to a verb.

Rule 4. When a direct address is made, the noun or pronoun is in the nominative case independent.

Rule 5. A noun or pronoun connected with a participle, and standing independently of the rest of the sentence, is in the nominative case absolute.

Rule 6. When two nouns come together, signifying different things, the former implying possession, is in the possessive case,* and is governed by the latter.



Rule 7. Transitive verbs govern the objective


Rule 8. Participles of transitive verbs govern the objective case.

Rule 9. Verbs of teaching, giving, and some others of a similar nature, govern two objectives, the one of a person, the other of a thing.

Rule 10. A passive verb may govern an objective, when the words immediately preceding and following it, do not refer to the same thing.

Rule 11. Prepositions govern the objective

Rule 12. The conjunction as, when it takes the meaning of for, or, in the character of, becomes a preposition, and governs an objective.

Rule 13. Interjections sometimes govern the objective case.


* This is sometimes called the genitive case.


Rule 14. The adverb like, and the adjectives worth and like, sometimes govern the objective case.

Rule 15. Nouns implying measure, length of time, and distance of space, are put in the objective, without a governing word.

Rule 16. Participial nouns* may have the same cases, and be governed in the same manner, with common substantives. They also have the power of governing other words in the objective case.

Rule 17. Two or more nouns coming together and signifying the same thing, are put by apposition in the same case.

Rule 18. Any intransitive or passive verb may have the same case after it as before it, when both words refer to the same thing.

MISCELLANEOUS RULES. Rule 19. Pronouns must always agree with their antecedents, and the nouns for which they stand, in gender and number. The relative pronoun is of the same person with the antecedent.

Rule 20. If there is no nominative between the relative and the verb, the relative is nominative case to the verb.

Rule 21. When a nominative comes between the relative and the verb, the relative is governed by some word in its own member of the sentence.

Rule 22. Every adjective, and every adjective pronoun or participle used adjectively, belongs to some noun or pronoun expressed or understood.

Rule 23. Adverbs qualify verbs, adjectives, participles, and other adverbs. They sometimes also qualify a preposition, sometimes an article, and sometimes a phrase or whole sentence. * A participle supplying the place of a substantive, is styled a participial noun.

Rule 24. Conjunctions connect the same moods and tenses of verbs, and cases of nouns and pronouns. *

Rule 25. Two or more nouns, connected by a copulative conjunction, require the words with which they agree to be plural. If connected by a disjunctive conjunction, the verb, noun, or pronoun, with which they agree, must be singular.

Rule 26. A noun of multitude, or signifying many, has a verb or pronoun agreeing with it, either in the singular or plural number.

Rule 27. The infinitive mood may be governed by a verb, noun, adjective, or participle.t

*To this rule there are some exceptions. See remarks on this rule, Part IL, Page 130.

+It may also be governed by a conjunction, adverb, or preposition. See Part II, Page 133.

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OF SUBSTANTIVES. A substantive or noun is the name of a thing. The word noun means name. Pen, paper, chair, table, book, gratitude, truth, bravery, are nouns. Substantives or nouns are either proper or com


Proper substantives are names appropriated to individuals without any reference to kind. --George, Henry, Charles, Edward, are of this class. Also names appropriated to particular places; as Boston, New-York, Baltimore.- These names have reference to no particular species of animals or things, but are used to designate particular individuals, or particular places; and they are therefore called proper names.

Common names orsubstantives are appropriated to kinds, or whole species, containing many individuals under them. Man, tree, bird, fish, are of this class. The term man has reference to no particular person,

but the human species, and may be applied to any individual pertaining to the species. So with tree, bird, or fish. These names stand for no particular objects, but may be applied to any one of the whole species. There may be innumerable trees and innumerable kinds of trees, yet the general name tree, may with equal propriety be applied to any one of them. All those names or nouns which are collected in dictionaries, with

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