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going display of them, cannot be conjugated throughout all their moods and tenses, without the help of other auxiliary verbs, viz. may, can, &c. with their variations. Auxiliaries in their simple state, are of a very limited extent, as will appear from a distinct conjugation of them. In their simple form, uncombined with any other, they are conjugated as follows:


Present Tense.

Plural. 1. I am.

1. We are. 2. Thou art, or you are.

2. Ye or you are. 3. He is.

3. They are.

Imperfect Tense.


1. We were. 2. Thou wast, or you were. 2. Ye or you were. 3. He was.

3. They were.

Present. Being.

Perfect. Beema.

Present Tense.

Plural. 1. I have.

1. We have. 2. Thou hast, or you have. 2. Ye or you have. 3. He hath or has.

3. They have.

Imperfect Tense.

Plural. 1. I had.

1. We had. 2. Thou hadst, or you had. 2. Ye or you had. 3. He had.

3. They had. Perfect. I have had, &c. Pluperfect. I had had, &c.

Present. Having.

Perfect. Had.

1. I was.


Present Tense.

Plural 1. I shall.

1. We shall. 2. Thou shalt, or you shall. 2. Ye or you shall. 3. He shall.

3. They shall.

Imperfect Tense.

Plural. 1. I should.

1. We should. 2. Thou shouldst or you should. 2. Ye or you should. 3. He should.

3. They should.


Present Tense.

Plural. 1. I will

1. We will. 2. Thou wilt or you will. 2. Ye or you will. 3. He will.

3. They will.

Imperfect Tense.

Plural. 1. I would.

1. We would. 2. Thou wouldst, or you would. 2. Ye or you would. 8. He would.

3. They would.


Present Tense.


1. We may. 2. Thou mayst, or you may.

2. Ye or you may.

3. They may.

Imperfect Tense.

Plural 1. I might.

1. We might. 2. Thou mightst, or you might. 2. Ye or you might. 3. He might.

3. They might.


Present Tense.

Plural 1. I can.

1. We can. 2. Thou canst, or you can.

2. Ye or you can. 3. He can.

3. They can. * Shall and will, though generally the signs of the future, may sometimes be considered in the present tense, potential mood; having the same analogy to should and would, that can has to could, or my to might; as, He shall of ey me at all times : Some people will never assist the poor.

1. I may.

3. He may.

Imperfect Tense.

Plural 1. I could.

1. We could. 2. Thou couldst, or you could. 2. Ye or you could. 3. He could.

3. They could.
To Do.

Present Tense.

Plural 1. I do.

1. We do. 2. Thou dost, or you do. 2. Ye or you do. 8. He doth or does.

3. They do.

Imperfect Tense.

Plural l. I did.

1. We did. 2. Thou didst, or you did. 2. Ye or you did. 3. He did.

3. They did.

Participles. Present. Doing.

Perfect. Done. The verbs have, be, will, and do, when they are unconnected with a principal verb, expressed or understood, are not auxiliaries, but principal verbs; as, We have enough: I am grateful: He wills it to be so: They do as they please. In this view they also have their auxiliaries; as, I shall have enough; I will be grateful, &c.

The peculiar force of the several auxiliaries will

appear from the following account of them: Do and did mark the action itself, or the time of it, with greater energy and positiveness; as, I do speak truth: I did respect him: Here am Í, for thou didst call me. They are of great use in negative sentences; as, I do not fear; I did not write. They are almost_universally employed in asking questions; as, Does he learn? Did he not write? They sometimes also supply the place of another yerb, and make the repetition of it in the same or the subsequent sentence, unnecessary; as, You attend not to your studies as he does, (i. e. as he attends:) I shall come if I can; but if I do not, please to excuse me; (i. e. if I come not.)

Let not only expresses permission, but entreating, exhorting, commanding; as, Let us know the truth: Let me die the death of the righteous: Let not thy heart be too much elated with success: Let thy inclination submit to thy duty.

May and might express the possibility or liberty of doing a thing: can and could, the power; as, It may rain: I may write or read: He might have improved more than he has: He can write much better than he could last year.

Must is sometimes called in for a helper and denotes necessity; as, We must speak the truth whenever we do speak, and must not prevaricate.

Will, in the first person singular and plural, intimates resolution and promising; in the second and third only foretells; as, I will reward the good and will punish the wicked: We will remember benefits and be grateful: Thou wilt or he will repent of that folly: You or they will have a pleas ant walk.

Shall, on the contrary, in the first person, simply foretells; in the second and third persons, promises, commands, or threatens; as, I shall go abroad: We shall dine at home: Thou shalt or you shall inherit the land: Ye shall do justice and love mercy: They shall account for their misconduct. The following passage is not translated according to the distinct and proper meanings of the words shall and will: “Surely goodness and mercy shall follow me all the days of my life; and I will dwell - in the house of the Lord forever;” it ought to be, will follow me, and I shall dwell.—The foreigner who, as it is said, fell into the Thames, and cried out, “ I will be drowned, and nobody shall help me; " made a sad misapplication of these auxiliaries.

These observations respecting the import of the verbs will and shall must be understood of explicative sentences; for when the sentence is interrogative, just the reverse, for the most part, takes place: thus, I shall go; you will go; express event only: but, Will you go ? imports intention; Shall I


? refers to the will of another. When the verb is put in the subjunctive mood, the meaning of these auxiliaries likewise undergoes some alteration.

Would primarily denotes inclination of will; and should, obligation, but they both vary their imports and are often used to express simple events.

Were is frequently used for would be; and had, for would have; as, It were injustice to deny the execution of the law to any individual; that is, it would be injustice. Many acts which had been blamable in a peaceable government, were ployed to detect conspiracies; that is, which would have been blamable.

The auxiliary should, is frequently used to express a modest assertion; as I should think it would be for his interest to proceed; i. e. I am inclined to think it would be: I should think the method he has chosen, to be judicious; i. e. it is my opinion that it is. Such a manner of expression has the form of the potential mood, but the effect of the indicative. It cannot properly be called the potential mood; for it neither implies possibility, liberty, power, will, nor obligation.” It may rather be said to “ indicato or declare a thing;" and may


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