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19. The objective case generally expresses the object of an action or relation.

20. Substantives are declined in the following manner:


Plural. Nominative case.


Men. Possessive case.


Men's. Objective case.


Men. OF ARTICLES. 21. An article is a word prefixed to substantives, to point them out and limit their signification.

22. There are two articles, a and the; a usually becomes an before a vowel or silent h.

23. A or an is styled the indefinite article, because it is used in an indefinite or vague sense to point out one single thing of a kind or species; the is styled the definite article, because it is used in a definite sense to point out what particular thing or things are meant.

OF ADJECTIVES, 24. An adjective is a word added to a substantive to qualify it.*

25. To the adjective are ascribed three degrees of comparison, viz. positive, comparative, and superlative.

26. An adjective of the positive kind is in its simplest state; the comparative degree increases or lessens the positive in signification; and the superlative increases or lessens the signification of the positive to the highest or lowest degree.

27. The simple word, or positive, becomes the comparative by adding ror er; and the superlative

*By qualifying a substantive, is meant either to point out its kind, to express some circumstance respecting it, or in any way fit it to sustain in the best manner, its office in a sentence. See remarks under the head of Adjectives, Part II, Page 82

by adding sl or est. The adverbs more and most, placed before the adjective, have the same effect.

OF PRONOUNS. 28. A pronoun is a word used instead of a noun, to avoid the too frequent repetition of the same word. 29. There are three kinds of pronouns, viz.

personal, relative, and adjective pronouns.

30. There are five Personal Pronouns, viz. I, thou, or you,* he, she, it; with their plurals, we, ye or you, they.

31. The persons of pronouns are three in each number, viz.

I is the first person
Thou or you is the second person Singular.
He, she, or it, is the third person
Wé is the first person
Ye or you is the second person

Plural. They is the third person 32. The gender of pronouns has respect only to the third person singular: He is masculine, She is feminine, It is neuter.

33. Pronouns have three cases, viz. nominative, possessive, and objective. The objective case of a pronoun has, in general, a form different from that of the nominative or the possessive case.

34. The personal pronouns are thus declined. Person. Case. Singular,



Poss. Mine.
Obj. Me.


Thou or you.
Second. Poss.

Thine or yours.

Thee or you.

You. * You is used either in the singular or plural number, but requires the verb, with which it agrees, to be always in the plural form.





{ {

Ye or yoli.



Nom. He.



Obj. Him.

Nom. She.

Poss. Hers.

Obj. . Her.

Nom. It.

Poss. Its.

Obj. It.

Them. 35. Relative Pronouns are such as relate in general to some word or phrase going before, which on this account is called the antecedent. They are who, which, that, what, and sometimes as.

36. Who is applied to persons, which to things, and that to both persons and things; what is a compound relative, including both the antecedent and the relative, and is equivalent to that which,

37. Who is of both numbers, and is thus declined:

Singular and Plural.



Whom. 38. Who, which, and what are called interrogatives when they are used in asking questions.

39. Adjective pronouns are of a mixed nature, participating the properties both of pronouns and adjectives; and may be divided into four sorts, viz. possessive, distributive, demonstrative, and indefinite.

40. The possessive are those which relate to property or possession. There are seven of them, viz. my, thy, his, her, our, your, their.

41. The distributive are those which denote the persons or things that make up a number as taken separately and singly. They are each, every,

, either.

42. The demonstrative are those which point out precisely the subjects to which they relate. They are this and that, these and those.

43. The indefinite are those which express their subjects in an indefinite or general manner. The following are of this kind, viz. some, other, any, one, all, such, &c.* 44. Other is declined in the following manner: Singular.

Nom. Other.


Obj. Other,

Others. OF VERBS. 45. A verb is a word which signifies to be, to do, or to suffer. Verbs are of three kinds; transitive, intransitive, and passive.

46. A transitive verb is one which passes over from the agent or subject and terminates on some :object.

47. An intransitive verb is one which does not pass over to an object, but whose being or action is confined to the subject or actor,

48. A passive verb expresses passion or suffering, or the receiving of an action.t

49. To verbs belong number, person, mood, and tense. The number and person of verbs always correspond with the nouns or pronouns with which they agree. I

50. Mood, or Mode, is the particular form which the verb assumes to express different states of the

* The distributive, demonstrative, and indefinite adjective pronouns, are frequently joined to the substantives to which they relate. They then become adjectives and should be parsed as such. For the sake of distinguishing them from other adjectives, they may be called pronominal Adjectives.

+ Verbs implying action, and which terminate on an object, are, by some grammarians, styled active verbs; those which imply simply being or state of being. neuter verbs.

Verbs of themselves, i. e. independently of the noun or pronoun with which they agree, bave po pumher or person. See remarks on this subject, Part II, Page 48 & 49.

mind, and different circumstances of being or action.

51. There are five moods of verbs, viz. the indicative, the imperative, the potential, the subjunctive, and the infinitive.

52. The indicative mood simply indicates or declares a thing.

53. The imperative mood is used for commanding, exhorting, entreating, or permitting.

54. The potential mood implies possibility, liberty, power, will, or obligation.

55. The subjunctive mood represents a thing under a condition, motive, wish, or supposition, &c. and is preceded by a conjunction, expressed or understood, and attended by another verb.

56. The infinitive mood expresses a thing in a general and unlimited manner, without any distinction of number or person.

57. The participle is a certain form of the verb, and derives its name from its participating not only the properties of a verb, but also those of an adjective and noun.

58. There are three participles, the present or active, the perfect or passive, and the compound perfect.

59. Tense or time is made to consist of six variations, viz. the present, the imperfect, the perfect, the pluperfect, and the first and second future.

60. The present tense represents an action or event as passing at the time in which it is mentioned.

61. The imperfect tense represents the action or event either as past and finished, or as remaining unfinished at a certain time pasť. 62. The perfect tense not only refers to what is

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