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they acted as interpreters between Mr. Lange and the officers, while some of the failors, who understood Portuguese, conversed with such of the Raja's attendants as spoke that language. The chief part of the dinner was mutton, which the Raja having tasted, he begged an English sheep, and the only one which they had left was given him. He then asked for a dog, and Mr. Banks gave him his greyhound ; and a spying-glass was presented to him, on Mr. Lange's intimating that it would be acceptable.
The visitors now told Captain Cook, that there was great plenty of fowls, hogs, sheep and buffaloes on the island, numbers of which should be conveyed to the sea shore on the following day, that he might purchase what was necessary for the recovery of the sick, and for sea-stores. This welcome news gave great spirits to the company, and the bottle went fo briskly round, that Mr. Lange and his companions became almost intoxicated. They had, however, the resolution to express a desire to depart, before they were quite drunk. Messrs. Solander and Banks went afhore with the visitors, who were saluted at their departure with nine guns, which they returned with three cheers.
On the following day the captain, attended by several gentlemen, went on shore to return the Raja's visit ; but their principal intention was, to buy the refreshments which had been mentioned the preceding day. When they landed, they were chagrined to find that the cattle had not been driven down to the beach. They went on to the town.
The Raja was at the house of assembly, surrounded by many of his principal subjects; and Mr. Lange also attended. Captain Cook having informed them that he had loaded his boat with goods, which he wished to exchange for necessary refrehments, permission was given to land his effects. The Captain now endeavoured to make an agreement for the hogs, sheep, and buffaloes, which were to be paid for in cash; but this business was no sooner hinted at than Mr. Lange took his leave, having first told the captain that he must make his agreement with the natives; and adding, that he had received a letter from the Governor of Concordia, in Timor, the contents of which should be disclosed at his return.
They were invited to dine with the Raja, but he did not partake of the entertainment, as it was not customary here to sit down with their guests. They began their dinner, which consisted of pork and rice, very excellent of their kinds, ferved up in, thirty-six dishes, and three earthen bowls, filled with a kind of broth, in which the pork had been boiled. The spoons were formed of leaves, but were so small, that the hunger of the guests would scarcely allow them patience to use them.
When dinner was ended, the captain invited the Raja to drink wine with him; but this he declined, saying, that the man who entertained company should never get drunk with his guests.
When the bottle had circulated some tiine, Captain Cook began to enquire after the cattle that were promised to be driven down to the beach ; when Mr. Lange informed him, that in the letter which he had received from the Governor of Concordia, instructions were given, that if the ship should touch at the island, and be in want of provisions, she should be supplied ; but that he was not to permit her to remain longer than was absolutely necessary, That no presents were to be made to the natives of low rank, nor even left with their superiors to be divided among them after the ship had failed; but, he added, that any trilling civilities received from the Indians, might be acknowledged by a present of beads, or any other articles of small value. It is a very probable conjecture, that the whole of this story was of Mr. Lange's own manu
cook's FirsT VOYAGE. facture, and folely calculated to draw all the presents of any value into his own pocket,
Soon after this the captain was informed, that some sheep had been driven down to the beach; but had been conveyed away before the men could get money from the fhip to pay for them, and that not a single hog or buffaloe had been driven down; but that a small numer of fowls, and a quantity of the palm-fyrup had been bought.
Heartily vexed to be thus disappointed of the chief articles which were wanted, the captain renionstrated with Mr. Lange, who told him, that if he and his officers had gone to the spot, they might have purchased any thing they pleased ; but that the Indians imagined the seamen would impose on them with counterfeit money.
This story was no niore credited than the former; but not to lose more time in a case of such urgency, the captain instantly repaired to the beach ; but there were no cattle to be bought. During his absence, Lange informed Mr. Banks that the Indians were offended, that the seanien had not offered gold for what they had to sell, and that no other metal would purchase their commodities; but Mr. Banks, disdaining to hold farther conversation with a man who had been guilty of such repeated subterfuges, left him abruptly.
On the 20th the captain and Dr. Solander went again on shore, and while the latter proceeded to the town in search of Lange, the captain staid on the beach, with a view to buy cattle. At this place was an old man, who had been distinguished by the name of prime minister, because he appeared to be invested with considerable authority; and the captain now presented him with a spying-glass, in order to make a friend of him. At present there was nothing brought for sale but a small buffaloe, for which five gui. neas were demanded. Though the captain knew that this was double its value, yet he bid three guineas, as he was willing to begin dealing at any rate. The person who had it to sell said, he could not take the money till the Raja had been informed what was offered ; on which a man was sent to him, who soon came back with a message, that five guineas would be the lowest price: this the captain refused to give; on which a second messenger was dispatched, who staying a long time; Captain Cook was
Che 20th the captam awn of Lange, the cap had been distinguished
escorted by more than a hundred persons, some of whom had lances in their hands, and the rest were armed with musquets. When the doctor arrived at the marketing place, he informed the captain, that Lange had interpreted to him a message from the Raja, the substance of which was, that the natives were averfe to all traffick with the English, because they would not give above half the real worth of the things which were offered for sale ; and that all trading whatever should be prohibited after that day.
A native of Timor, whose parents were Portuguese, came down with this party, and delivered to the captain what was pretended to be the order of the Raja, and which was in substance the same as Lange had told Dr. Solander ; but it was afterwards dir. covered, that this man was a confederate of Lange's, in the scheme of extortion. The English gentlemen had at the same time no doubt but that the supposed order of the Raja was a contrivance of these men; and while they were debating how they should act in this critical conjuncture, anxious to bring the affair to a speedy iffue, the Portuguese began to drive away such of the natives as had brought palm-fyrup and fowls to sell, and others who were now bringing Theep and buffaloes to the market.
Just at this juncture Captain Cook happening to look at the old man who had been distinguished by the name of prime-minister, imagined that he saw in his features a disapprobation of the present proceedings; and willing to improve the advantage, he
grasped grasped the Indian's hand, and gave him an old broad sword. This well-timed present produced all the good effects that could be wished; the prime minister was enraptured at fo honourable a mark of distinction, and, brandishing his sword over the head of the impertinent Portuguese, he made both him, and a man who commanded the party, sit down behind him on the ground. The whole business was now accomplished; the natives, eager to supply whatever was wanted, brought their cattle in for sale, and the market was soon stocked. For the first two buffaloes Captain Cook gave ten guineas; but he afterwards purchased them liy way of exchange, giving a musquet for each ; and at this rate he might have bougit any number he thought proper. There seems to be no doubt but that Larre had a profit out of the first two that were sold, and that his reason for having said that the natives would take nothing but gold for their cattle, was, that he might the more easily share in the produce. Captain Cook purchased of the natives of this island some hundred gallons of palm-fyrup, a small quantity of garlick, a large number of eggs, some limes, and cocoa-nuts, thirty dozen of fowls, three hogs, fix sheep, and nine buffaloes.
Having at length obtained these necessary refreshments, Captain Cook prepared for sailing from this place.
This island is called Savu ; it is situated in 10° 35' south latitude, and 237° 30' west longitude, and has hitherto been very little known, or very imperfectly described. Its length is between twenty and thirty miles; but its breadth could not be ascertained. At the time the Endeavour lay there it was near the end of the dry season, when it had not rained for almost seven months, nor was there a running stream of fresh water to be seen, and the natives were supplied only by small springs, situated at a distance up the country. The rains in this country cease in March or April, and fall again in October or November : and these rains produce abundance of indico, millet, and maize, which grow beneath the noblest trees in the universe. .
Besides these articles, the island produces tobacco, cotton, betle, tamarinds, limes, oranges, mangoes, rice, Guinea-corn, callevances, and water-melons. A trifling quantity of cinnamon was seen, and some European herbs, such as garlic, fennel, celery and marjoram ; besides which, there are fruits of various kinds, and particularly the blimbi, which has a sharp taste, and is said to be a fine pickle, but it is not eaten raw. · Several buffaloes were seen on this island, which were almost as large as an ox: and from a pair of enormous horns of this animal which Mr. Banks faw, it was conjectured, that some of them were much larger ; yet they did not weigh more than half as much as an ox of the same apparent size, having lost the greater part of their flesh through the late dry weather; the meat, however, was juicy, and of a delicate flavour. The horns of these animals bend backwards, they have no dewlaps, nor scarce any hair on their skins, and their ears are remarkably large. The other tame animals on the island are dogs, cats, pigeons, fowls, hogs, goats, Theep, asses and horses.
Few of the horses are above twelve hands high, yet they are full of mettle, and pace naturally in an expeditious manner; the natives ride them with a halter only. The sheep are not unlike a goat, and are therefore called cabritos. The sea-coast furnishes the inhabitants with turtle, but not in any great abundance.
The natives of the island of Savu are rather below the middle stature ; their hair is black and straight, and persons of all ranks, as well those that are exposed to the weather, as those that are not, have one general complexion, which is dark brown, The men are well formed and sprightly, and their features differ much from each other: the women, on the contrary, have all one set of features, and are very short and broad built, VOL. XI,
The men have silver pincers hanging by strings round their necks, with which they pluck out the hair of their beards; and both men and women root out the hair that grows under the arms.
The dress of the men consists of two pieces of cotton cloth, one of which is bound round the middle, and the lower edge of it being drawn pretty tight between the legs, the upper edge is left loose, so as to form a kind of a pocket, in which they carry their knives and other things: the other piece being passed under the former, on the back of the wearer, the ends of it are carried over the shoulders, and tucked into the pocket before. The women draw the upper edge of the piece round the waist tight, while the lower edge, dropping to the knees makes a kind of a petticoat: the other piece of cloth is fastened across the breast, and under the arms. This cloth, which is manufactured by the natives, is dyed blue while in the yarn; and, as it is of various shades, its look when it comes to be worn is very beautiful.
The ornaments of the natives of Savu are very numerous, and consist of rings, beads worn round the neck and on the wrists, and chains of plaited gold wire, likewise hung round the neck: these things were worn by both sexes; but the women had also girdles of beads round their waist, which helped to keep up the petticoat.
The houses on the island of Savu are of different lengths, from twenty feet to four hundred, according to the rank of the inhabitant, and are fixed on posts about four or five feet from the ground. The houses are generally divided into three rooms of equal size, the centre room being set apart for the use of the women'; and sometimes smaller rooms are enclosed from the sides of the building, the whole of which is thatched with the leaves of the palm-tree.
The natives eat of all the tame animals which the island produces, but they prefer the hog to all the rest; next to the hog's flesh they admire that of the horse, to which succeeds the buffalo, and then the poultry; and they like the flesh of cats and dogs much better than that of goats and sheep. They seldom eat fish.
The fan-palm is the most remarkable, and most useful tree that grows on the island, its uses being equally great and various. Soon after the buds put forth, the natives cut them, and tying under them little baskets, formed of the leaves of the tree, a liquor drops into them, which has the taste of a light wine, and is the common liquor of all the inhabitants. · The leaves of the tree are applied to the various uses of making tobacco-pipes, umbrellas, cups, baskets, and the thatching of houses. The fruit is nearly the size of a full grown turnip; but the natives are not fond of it.
The island consists of five divisions, each of which has a raja, or chief governor of its own. These divisions are called Timo, Massara, Regeeua, Laai and Seba. It was on this last division that our English adventurers went on shore; the raja of which was between thirty and forty years of age, and remarkable for his corpulency. He governs his people with the most absolute authority, but takes on him very little of the parade or pomp of royalty.
The natives are so expert in the use of their lances, that they will throw them with such force and exactness, as to pierce a man through the heart at the distance of sixty or feventy yards.
The inhabitants of Savu are divided into five ranks; the rajas, the land-owners, manufacturers, labourers, and slaves. The land-owners are respected in proportion to the extent of their lands, and the number of their slaves, which last are bought and fold with the estates to which they belong; but when a slave is bought separately, a fat hog is the price of the purchase. Though a man may sell his flave in this manner,
or convey him with his lands, yet his power over him extends no farther, for he must not even strike him without the raja's permission.
The natives in general are robust and healthy, and had the appearance of being long-lived. The small-pox has found its way to this island, and is as much dreaded as the pestilence. When this disorder attacks any person, he is carried to some spot at a great distance from any house, where his food is conveyed to him by means of a long stick, for no one will venture very near the invalid, who is thus left to take his chance of life or death.
The island of Savu having been visited by the Portuguese almost at their first failing into this part of the world, they established a settlement upon it; but in a little time they were succeeded by the Dutch, who, though they did not formally poffefs themselves of the island, sent a number of trading vessels to establish a treaty of commerce with the natives. The principal object of this treaty is, that the rajas should furnish the Dutch, for the consumption of their spice islands, with rice, maize, &c. annually, and they are to return the value in arrack, cutlery wares, linen, and silk. In this agreement the rajas seipulated, that a Dutch resident should be constantly on the island, to observe that their part of the contract was fulfilled.
As soon as this was accomplished, they sent Mr. Lange to act as their resident. Once every two months he is attended by fifty flaves on horseback, and in this state visits each of the rajas. He constantly takes with him a quantity of arrack, by the help of which he does not fail of making advantageous bargains with the rajas.
Lange had been on this island ten years, during all which time he had not seen a white person, except those who came annually in the Dutch ship to carry off the rice. He is married to an Indian woman, a native of the island of Timor, and he lives in the same manner as the inhabitants of Savu, whose language he speaks better than any other; like them too he sits on the ground and chews betle, and has so perfectly adopted their manners, that he is an absolute Indian, except in dress and complexion.
The morality of these people is of the purest kind. A robbery is scarce ever committed, and a murder is never perpetrated. When any disputes arise between the natives, they instantly submit the point in debate to the decision of the raja, and rest perfectly satisfied with his determination. No man is permitted to marry more than one wife; yet a violation of the marriage bed, or even the crime of simple fornication, is almost wholly unknown among them.
Of the islands in the neighbourhood of Savu, the principal is Timor, which is annually visited by the Dutch residents on the other islands, in order to make up their accounts.
A French ship was wrecked on the coast of Timor, about two years before the Endea. vour was in these seas. She had been lodged on the rock several days, when the wind tore her to pieces in an instant, and the captain, with the greater number of the seamen, were drowned; but a lieutenant, and about eighty men reached the shore, where their immediate necessities were relieved, after which they returned to the wreck, in company with some Dutch and Indians, who assisted them in recovering all their chests of bullion, fome of their guns and other effects, which being done, they returned, where they remained several weeks; but in this interval, death made such havock among them, that not above half their number remained to be sent to their native country.
The Endeavour failed from the island of Savu on the 21st of September,'1770, and bent her course westward.