Preventing AIDS: Theories and Methods of Behavioral Interventions

Front Cover
Charles H Candler Professor Rollins School of Public Health Emory University Atlanta Georgia Ralph J Diclemente, PhD, Ralph J. DiClemente, John L. Peterson
Springer Science & Business Media, Mar 31, 1994 - Medical - 336 pages
Public health has a legacy of neglect regarding social and behavioral research. Too often, prompted by technical and scientific progress, we have ignored even marginalized-the vital "human element" in health thinking and prac tice. Thus, for example, while family planning programs focused on providing a choice among safe and effective contraceptive methods (a supremely worthy goal), the central issue of sexuality and sexual behavior was generally neglected. Similarly, the enormous and important efforts to develop rapid and reliable diagnostic and treatment methods for sexually transmitted diseases helped divert attention away from the crucial issues of sexual practice. In short, we seem to have difficulty addressing the fundamental behaviors-including sex, drug taking and other intoxications, and violence-that are central to the major causes of preventable morbidity, disability, and premature mortality in the world today. Our collective reluctance to examine and understand ourselves is also expressed in the oft-repeated pipedream that scientific progress will "take care of" the HIV / AIDS pandemic by delivering a preventive vaccine, an effective cure, or both. Yet even a cursory glance at the relationship between scientific/ technical progress and health shows that meeting the scientific challenges is only one step toward effective application of the vaccine or drug. It is typical, not atypical, that hepatitis B vaccine is only now becoming relatively freely available to large populations in the developing world, more than a decade after the vaccine's licensure.
 

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Contents

The Role
1
Components of the Health Belief Model
7
Recommendation for Future Research
19
Social Cognitive Theory and Exercise of Control over
25
Prevention of Behavioral Lapses
46
References
54
Using Information to Change Sexually Transmitted
61
Attitude and Behavioral Beliefs
67
Future Research
169
Victims and Victimization
175
Societys Attitudes and Policies toward Homeless Youth
180
References
186
HIV Testing and Risk Assessment
193
Psychological Interventions and HIV Risk Reduction
199
HIVAIDS Prevention for Drug Users in Natural Settings
209
Challenges in Evaluating Programs in Natural Settings
218

Salient Outcomes and Referents
73
Diffusion Theory and HIV Risk Behavior Change
79
Suggestions for Diffusion Theory
91
Theories of Subcultural Change
98
Changing the Social Environment
106
References
112
The Role of Schools in HIV Prevention
118
SchoolBased Programs to Improve Access to Contraceptives
126
Programmatic Recommendations
129
References
135
Interventions for Adolescents in Community Settings
141
Social Psychological Approach to HIV RiskReduction Interventions
147
Methodological and Logistical Issues in HIV RiskReduction
157
SelfReports of Sexual Behavior
163
Interventions for Sexual Partners of HIVInfected
227
The Effect of HIV Antibody Testing Counseling and AIDS Education
232
References
240
Psychosocial Predictors of HIVRelated Sexual Risk of Heterosexual
247
Conclusions
259
HIV Prevention for Gay and Bisexual Men in Metropolitan
267
HIV Prevention among Urban Gay and Bisexual Minority Men
275
Conclusions
290
HIV Prevention among Gay and Bisexual Men in Small Cities
297
Interventions and Their Effectiveness
304
Methodological Issues and Research Needs
313
Caveats
319
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