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have but within a few years been published. The system is modified in each province to suit the wants of each, and the results show a great discrepancy between the different provinces.

Lombardy and Venice.—In the kingdom of Lombardy the number of foundations for educational purposes has always been great. Such as depended upon clerical bodies were for the most part secularized during the French occupation. By the edict of the Italian republic of 4th September, 1802, the care of national education was undertaken by the Government. Schools were to be of three kinds, according as their expenditure was defrayed by the State, the department, or the parish, and three degrees of instruction were established in the higher, secondary, and primary schools. A chief inspector (inspettore in capo), with 9 provincial inspectors, 129 district inspectors, and 16 school directors, together with the parish clergy of 2206 parishes, formed in 1835 the staff for the direction of 3641 primary schools, which were attended by 282,871 children of both sexes, out of 336,620 reputed of age to go to school, or between 6 and 12 years old. In that year it was computed that 161,039 children did not attend school.

The most recent survey of the institutions for education is for the year 1843. They show that a larger sum is expended on education in Lombardy than in any other province. The total outlay was,In Lombardy

£197,245 In Venice.

119,696 The subventional contribution from the State Treasury to these provinces is said to be 74,3491., which sum probably flowed from the Consolidated Fund, called the “Monte Pio," now forming a portion of the National Debt. Of this sum it would seem that the clementary schools tookLombardy

£55,357 Venice

33,834 But to this must be added the cost of

12 asylums for male orphans £9,100 Lombarby 20 asylums for female orphans 16,504 3 asylums for the destitute,

1,435 11 asylums for female orphans 7,853 Venice 4 asylums for male orphans

616 5 asylums for both sexes


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£40,247 making for elementary instruction 129,4371., for which it would seem that 284,707 children of both sexes receive instruction out of 615,213 of an age to go to school, or about 46 per cent. (Venice, 32 per cent. ; Lombardy, 56 per cent.) The cost is less than 10s. per child.

Bohemia.The Central Slavonic provinces, Bohemia, Moravia, and Silesia, present a better return of school attendance than Italy.

Out of 539,691 children of the school age, 511,785 seem actually to have gone to school in Bohemia; and out of 289,710 in Moravia and Silesia, 279,975 were at school in 1843. If the repetition schools be added, the number of scholars exceeds the number bound to attend by law by 366,184 in the two provinces. The cost of instruction does not exceed 2s. per child annually for those attending the elementary schools.

Austria. In the archduchy of Lower Austria, in which the capital is situated, 157,683 children attended school in 1842 out of 161,120, or about 97 per cent. In Upper Austria the attendance was 98 per cent. ; in Stiria, 80 per cent. ; in Illyria, 30 per cent.; in Tyrol, 104 per cent. ; in Galicia (Poland), 16 per cent.; in Dalmatia, 33 per cent.; in Transylvania, 74 per cent.; in the military frontier,

The numbers here given are without taking the repetition schools into account, which were frequented altogether by 658,177 children These numbers do not follow the numbers of the schools established.

Galicia. Galicia, with an attendance of only 84,799 has 2132 schools; whereas Moravia has but 1955 schools, attended by 279,975 children.

The elementary schools divide into three classes: chief schools are found in the large towns; and trivial schools in nearly every parish, the greater part of which, in the country, serve for children of both sexes. There were also 2250 elementary girls' schools in all provinces in 1843.

The law enjoining that all children should attend school on the responsibility of their parents and guardians was passed by Joseph II. for the old German and Slavonian provinces. It was extended to the provinces subsequently acquired by conquest. The majority of the schools are for children of the Roman Catholic persuasion; there are, however, 2246 schools of other persuasions, of which the Protestants have the majority. The Greek Church has 286 schools in Transylvania alone. Bohemia has the greatest number of Jewish schools.

With regard to languages, the necessities of the respective districts are consulted, and, although German is taught in the greater part of the elementary schools, yet religious instruction and reading are taught in the national dialect, whatever it may be. It consequently not unfrequently happens that religious instruction is given by the clergy and catechists in several languages, as well as according to different confessions, in the same school, and this is everywhere more or less the case in all the provinces that have partially a Slavonic population. Thus, within the precincts of the capital there is a school, in which instruction is given both in German and in modern Greek. Small as the province of Lower Austria is, there are six schools on the Moravian frontier, in which instruction is given half in German and half in Moravian; and in six others the Bohemian and German languages are united. The demands made on the Department of Public Instruction, arising out of the variety of languages, will appear from the following statement of the schools under its direction, in which those of Hungary are not included. The total number of elementary schools in the empire is 20,230.

6374 German schools.
6169 Italian schools.
4578 Slavonian schools.
1110 Hungarian schools.
513 Wallachian schools.

3 Greek schools.

1483 Mixed schools. The mixed schools comprise,

208 German and Bohemian

7 German and Moravian
515 German and Polish

55 German and Ruthenian
204 German and Wend
88 German and Carniolan

Mixed schools, with
22 German and Illyrian
1 German and Slowak

Slavonic dialects.
8 Italian and Carniolan
8 Italian and Illyrian
43 Italian and Dalmatian
268 Polish and Ruthenian

2 Wallachian and Ruthenian,
1 German and Wallachian.
I German and Greek.
50 German and Italian.

1 Hungarian and Wallachian. The German language is taught in 7484 schools, Italian in 6294, Slavonic dialects in 6019, Hungarian (out of Hungary) in 1122, Wallachian in 553, and Greek in 3 schools. Assuming, as official reports warrant, that the Slayonic population (exclusive of Hungary) consists of 10,000,000 souls, the German of 6,500,000, the Italian of 5,000,000, and the Hungarian (Magyar) of 1,500,000 in Transylvania, the proportion of school provision would be,In the Slavonic provinces, on an average, 1 school to 1827 inhabs. In the German provinces,

I school to 869 inhabs. In Italy,

1 school to 794 inhabs. In Transylvania,

I school to 1000 inhabs. There is no return made for Hungary, with 11,000,000 of inhabitants, of whom 5,500,000 are Hungarians (Magyars) and 5,500,000 Slavonians and Wallachians.

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The school attendance is stated to vary in the following proportions in the various provinces.

SCHOOL ATTENDANCE in proportion to One of the Population.

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The average school attendance for the whole empire is calculated to be 1 in 9 for boys, and 1 in 12 for girls.

The total expenditure for education, local and general, is shown in the following table.

TABLE showing the INCOME of Schools in the Empire of Austria.

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From this table it appears that of the sum applied to elementary education little more than one-third is raised as school-money from those immediately enjoying the benefit.

TABLE showing the NUMBER of CHILDREN and the SchooL ATTENDANCE in the

Empire of Austria.

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Table showing the NUMBER of Parishes and of Schools, according to their Religious

distinctions, in the Empire of Austria.

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The schools returned as not Roman Catholic include the Greek
persuasion as well as Protestant schools, the two not being distin-
guished in the official return.

The first impulse to improved primary instruction in Holland
seems to have been given by some benevolent citizens of Gro-
ningen, who, in 1784, founded the "Society for the Public
Good."* They were encouraged and supported by the govern-

Maatschappij tot Nut van't Algemeen,

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