« PreviousContinue »
ment in their efforts to train schoolmasters, and excite attention to the state of schools. In 1806 the various edicts and regulations, published from time to time, were digested into a law, and were generalized for the guidance of the country at large. The French invasion curtailed the means applied to education ; still the Dutch system was, as early as 1812, thought worthy of a special inquiry by Commissioners deputed from the University of Paris, who reported with no small admiration respecting it. On the restoration of
peace in 1814, the first care of the king was directed to the state of public education, which by a law of that year was restored to the footing of 1806. Every province was divided into educational districts, and a school inspector was appointed to each district. A provincial School Commission was named from amongst the leading inhabitants of each province to co-operate with the inspectors, and a sum was charged on the budget for the educational outlay, from which the travelling expenses of the Commissioners were to be defrayed.
The governments of the towns and provinces were charged with the cost of maintaining the schools, for which they provide in their local budgets. Teachers were classified into four ranks, according to their acquirements and qualifications, and received their appointments from Government. A sum was also destined for the encouragement of associations of teachers, who were to meet to confer on school management, to visit each other's schools, and to study in common the duties incumbent on their profession.
The best known methods of instruction were sought and tried, and a catalogue of the best school books was prepared and published in the course of the
1814. Attention was also directed to the state of education in the eastern and western colonies, and schoolmasters and books were selected to be sent to both.
In 1817 two normal schools were founded at Haarlem and at Lier, near Antwerp, in addition to that which already existed at Groningen, supported by the Society for the General Good. Fifty teachers were annually to be trained at the two new seminaries; 14 were usually educated at Groningen. Similar seminaries likewise existed in several provinces of Belgium, in which part of the kingdom the state of popular education was, notwithstanding, very low. A new institution was this year decreed in a jury of five inhabitants, appointed for each province. The jury was intended to examine candidates for the office of schoolmaster, and to suggest and approve of means for the amelioration of the state of education in Belgium.
In 1818 the sum of 25,000 florins (20801.) was placed on the budget of the southern provinces in aid of education, although rich foundations are common in Belgium.
In 1819 the sum of 14,000 florins (11661.) was granted to aug. ment the salaries of deserving schoolmasters, and the grant to the southern provinces was increased to 30,000 florins (25001.). The supplementary outlay on the part of the State for popular education amounted, according to the budget of 1820, to
24,265 0 For normal schools
2,200 0 Gratifications to teachers
35,040 0 = £2920.
In 1823 the total cost of the lower schools was as follows, and this sum appears to have been charged in the budget.
This sum is equivalent to 20,1951. 11s. In 1826 it is reported that of 1000 of the population, 9026 attended school. Of 392,889 children reputed of a school age, 220,237 were in attendance at school, and 172,652 as not attending. In 88 pauper schools, 10,555 children were instructed in 1826. The number of schoolmasters' associations had increased to 336, with 4939 members.
Florins. Cents. The budget in 1828 provided
327,060 99 The provincial budgets added
101,411 83 The parishes contributed
Florins 496,530 30
Hence the total sum expended on public education for the people amounted in 1828 to 41,3771. 10s. The number of parishes in the kingdom was then 2751, of which 1146 had fixed public schools, and to 668 of these a master's house was attached." The outlay of the year for each school was, therefore, 361. per school. The number of scholars in attendance in winter was 247,496.
The first year in which the public accounts were kept for the northern provinces alone, after the separation of Belgium from the Netherlands, the sums allowed to public education in Holland very much exceeded all preceding outlay.
SWEDEN Notwithstanding the government national education, and decrees were schools as early as 1820, yet the off tain only a class of schools that are es of the richer classes. It is true tha school seems to be open to, and to co yet the small number of children of th ference that something in the arrangen
The official reports state the attend to have been as follows, commencing
Of this large sum, 76,3171., raised by 2,450,000 persons, nearly 20,0001. was for building and repairs. In the official statements
, from which this table is taken, the salaries of masters rank amongst the parish expenses for 307,934 florins.
The annual report for 1846, which is the latest we have seen, gives no financial details. It states the number of teachers, of pupils, and of schools to have been the following. NUMBER and ATTENDANCE of PUBLIC, Parish, and other Schools in Holland in 1816.
Gymnasia Classical Schools Arithmetical ditto . New Elementary ditto.
127 449 160 125
The results of this statement show one public school for 950 of the population, and that, of the total population in 1846, one in eight enjoyed public instruction.
SWEDEN. Notwithstanding the government undertook the direction in national education, and decrees were issued for the organization of schools as early as 1820, yet the officially published reports contain only a class of schools that are especially adapted to the wants of the richer classes. It is true that, from these reports, every school seems to be open to, and to contain, scholars of every class ; yet the small number of children of the work-people leads to the inference that something in the arrangement is discouraging to the poor.
The official reports state the attendance throughout the kingdom to have been as follows, commencing from the year 1822 to 1824.
The population in 1843 is stated to have been 3,138,887, so that, if no more than 19,000 were at school, the proportion is as 1 to 165 of the population.
From the great dispersion of the population in Sweden, the school attendance, as the reports explain, is necessarily bad. The following statement gives a survey of the schools, and attendance for 10 years, from 1833 to 1843, throughout the kingdom. It includes schools of all descriptions.
It would appear from this survey that about 17,000 was the utmost average annual attendance in 65 schools, which had 487 teachers. It has always been assumed in Sweden, that a very large proportion of the children of the kingdom receive instruction from their parents at home.
Translation of a Report on the State of General Education in
Sweden, transmitted by Her Majesty's Minister, dated July 1, 1847.
All the consistories in the kingdom having been required to draw up reports stating the condition of the general education of the country, as actually existing on the 1st of July, 1847, and these documents being now in our hands, we communicate therefrom as follows.
In the city of Stockholm, with about 83,000 inhabitants, instruction was given on the 1st of July last to the following children within the years required for school attendance.
In fixed schools, 2466; in public gymnasia, 1013; in private schools, 1841 ; and in their own homes, 724; while 1850 children received no instruction. The masters and mistresses in the fixed schools amounted to 24 examined and 41 unexamined. Of these, 24 were also clergymen, and one was a parish clerk. In several places, the public schools were already in full operation, and where this was not the case, it was expected they would be fully organized before the close of the
year. Within the diocese of Upsala, with a population of about 310,000 souls, were at the same time 156 examined teachers, of which number 55 fixed or temporary masters are clergymen, and 85 are also either organists or clerks. The number of children within the years of instruction, beginning at the seventh year, was 38,956, of whom 19,681 were boys, and 19,275 were girls. of these, 9545 received instruction in fixed schools, 6398 in ambulatory schools, 2287 in private schools (including village schools), and in their own homes, 18,576 ; while 1075 remain entirely untaught. In 48 parishes the schools had not yet been organized in accordance with the regulations of the School Bill; but of these, 13 parishes had their schools in full operation at the commencement of last September, and in 21 others announcements had been published for properly qualified masters.
In the diocese of Linköping most of the popular schools were organized and in full activity at the period now mentioned. In the other parishes measures had been taken for the same purpose, so that several schools have been opened since the 1st of last July, and some others will be ready before the end of the year.
In some cases difficulties had arisen, partly for want of school-houses, and partly for want of masters, the supply of the latter examined from the seminary not being yet sufficient, especially as this diocese contains upwards of 200 parishes.