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In the diocese of Skara 13,362 children had received education, in accordance with the School Act, in 143 fixed and 42 ambulatory schools, established either in the school year now mentioned, or shortly after the publication of the School Act. In some few parishes the public schools were not yet completely organized. Since then, however, several schools have come into operation, and it is hoped that most of the others will be ready within the present school
year. About 150 masters had been examined from the teachers' seminary since its commencement.
In the diocese of Strengnäs, containing 170 parishes, were 144 fixed schools ; 36 of these were also united with one or more ambulatory schools, and in 11 parishes the latter kind alone existed. In several places, two parishes had a school in common. In 11 parishes the schools had not yet been opened; but since then six of these have been fully organized, and in the other five no applications have yet been made for the vacant masterships. Of the teachers, 89 were examined from some seminary ; 27 were clergymen, and 69 were either organists or clerks. The pupils in the public and private schools amounted to 15,539; those instructed at home to 11,631, and 476 were untaught. Since the opening of the seminary, 75 pupils had been received, of whom 45 had left its walls duly qualified.
In the diocese of Vesterâs, with a population of 257,428 persons, 7160 children were taught in fixed schools, and 8258 in ambulatory. In the public gymnasia 389 boys were educated, and in private schools 894 children ; 646 children were altogether untaught. In the public schools 99 of the masters had been examined at a seminary, 74 of whom were enıployed in the fixed schools, and 25 in the ambulatory; the unexamined teachers amounted to 310, of whom 86 were in fixed schools, and 224 in ambulatory; 28 of the teachers were clergymen, and 41 either organists or clerks. Since the opening of the seminary, 119 persons had received instruction there, and 83 had taken their due examination; of this number 17 were clergymen.
The diocese of Vexiö contains 186 parishes, divided into 148 school districts. Of these, on the 1st of July last, 118 were fully organized and provided with teachers, while in 30 districts the schools were not yet ready; 23 of these remained closed for want of masters. Most of the parishes here are excessively large, and a majority of the schools are therefore ambulatory. Since the opening of the seminary, 146 pupils had been received, of whom 101 had left duly examined.
In the diocese of Lund, the children capable of instruction, from an average age of seven years, were taught as follows: in fixed schools, 34,210; in ambulatory, 10,582; in public gymnasia, 131 boys; in private seminaries, 1496 children; and in their own homes, 11,857; 3991 remaining untaught Sunday-school instruction was enjoyed by 6770 children. The masters and mistresses were—371 examined and 156 unexamined in the fixed schools, and 48 examined and 134 unexamined in the ambulatory; 6 were also clergymen, and 41 either clerks or organists.
Within the diocese of Gothenbourg were, on the 1st of last July, 173 public schools, of which 48 were fixed, and 125 ambulatory. From want of teachers, and other causes, 65 schools were not yet in operation. In the fixed schools 4125 children received instruction; in the ambulatory, 14,246 ; in public gymnasia,376 boys ; in private schools, 1715 children; and in their own homes, 18,198: 3736 were altogether untaught. The teachers in the fixed schools amounted to 37 examined, and 24 unexamined; and in the ambulatory schools, to 58 examined, and 94 unexamined. Sundayschool instruction was given to 919 children. Of the teachers, 14 were also clergymen, and 49 also either clerks or organists. In addition thereto, 24 elder public schools existed, for the children of the peasantry. Since the opening of the seminary, 101 pupils had received instruction, and 84 had left it duly examined for the employment of masters.
In the diocese of Calmar, which includes 42 benefices, 26 fixed, 33 ambulatory schools, were already fully organized, or about to be opened, in accordance with the regulations of the School Act.
The number fully ready, on the 1st of last July, was 35; four parishes had refused to establish public schools, and three had prayed for further delay. The number of examined teachers was -in the fixed schools 21, and in the ambulatory 26, total 47; of these, 24 were also parish clerks.
In the diocese of Carlstad the number of children within the years of instruction amounted to 36,157. Of these, 13,659 were taught in their own homes, 2534 in fixed schools, 18,066 in ambulatory, and 1989 in Sunday-schools. In the public gymnasia 266 boys were educated, and in private seminaries 204 children; 1428 remaining altogether untaught. The schools in full operation were -fixed schools, 31; ambulatory, 98; and Sunday-schools, 23. The number of masters was—in the fixed schools, 23 examined, and 6 unexamined; in the ambulatory, 95 examined, and 29 unexamined ; of this number, 40 are also organists or clerks, and 5 are clergymen. The public schools had been fully organized throughout the whole diocese, 13 parishes excepted, in accordance with the School Act.
In the diocese of Hernösand, beginning with the Swedish parishes, 23 schools were in due operation; instruction had not yet commenced in 87 others for want of masters, and in 37 from temporary causes. In those Lap parishes whose population is mostly Swedish, and where no Lap schools have yet been established, five public schools had been organized, but four of these had not yet been opened for want of teachers. No schools had yet been formed in the Finnish parishes. The seminary had now existed for five years, but only 30 pupils had yet been dimitted thence fully approved. The principal hinderances, besides the paucity of teachers, to the establishment of schools in this diocese, were the scantiness of the population, and the great distance between the several villages; this rendered it equally difficult to form a fixed school in every parish, or a sufficient number of ambulatory schools for the whole. This was still more the case in the Lap parishes, where also they could derive no assistance from the half of the protection tax granted for this purpose, the grant in question not having been extended to Lapmark. An additional obstacle to the establishment of public schools in the Finnish parishes, was the want of proper schoolmasters, acquainted with both the Swedish and the Finnish languages, and the great need of suitable schoolbooks in the latter tongue.
In Visby diocese, containing 92 parishes, public schools, organized in accordance with the School Act, existed only in 45. But since the 1st of July, schools have been opened in 12 other parishes. The whole number of schools was 36, 34 of which were fixed, and 2 ambulatory. Instruction was given to 1824 children. The principal hinderance to the active arrangement of the schools was the want of schoolmasters, only 43 of whoni had yet been qualified by the seminary, and very few applicants having as yet announced themselves from the mainland.
BELGIUM. Organic regulations for primary schools were promulgated on the 23rd September, 1842. The following are the results stated in a Report presented to the King by the Minister of the Interior, M. Nothomb :
There are different kinds of normal schools in the kingdom. Some were founded by bishops, others by the provincial councils, and all are encouraged by the Government, which maintains bursarships, and makes other payments. The sum distributed in this manner is about the same which was voted under the Dutch previous to 1830. Before 1830 it was 15,661 francs ; in 1840 it did not exceed 18,667 francs. The model schools have been gradually better attended since the Revolution. Before 1830 the pupils numbered 357; they now number 837.
In 1830 there were 550 teachers, who received rewards and augmentations of salary amounting to 161,252 francs. The provinces, in 1831, only disbursed 39,000 francs for the encouragement of primary instruction. In 1840 the teachers, in number 1000, received in augmentation of salaries 227,324 francs. On schools, 40,500 francs were spent in building grants; pensions were 10,000; and the provinces contributed 161,000 francs.
In 1840, out of 2510 communes, but 1040 had school-houses. There were, however, 2109 communal schools, 2284 private schools, and 796 mixed; in all, 5189 schools, leaving 163 communes without any school. The schools were frequented by
453,381 children of both sexes; and, since the population then numbered 4,064,997 inhabitants, the school attendance was as 1 to 9 of the population. Two-fifths of the scholars paid nothing for schooling
The total outlay in augmentation of schoolmasters' salaries by the State, the communes, and other public bodies, was 900,000 francs=36,0001. The school-money may be estimated at 2,300,000 francs = 92,0001. ; so that these two sums, when divided amongst 5320 masters, leaves for each a mean revenue of 590 francs, or 271. sterling
EMPIRE OF RUSSIA. Public instruction is superintended in Russia by the government, but little progress has, to judge from the published official statements, been made in the establishment of efficient means of elementary instruction. The report to the Emperor, made by the Minister of Education in 1846, enumerates the number of schools, with the attendance.
The proportion to a population of 300 of the inhabitants receiving instru
The clergy of the Greek church keep schools; and consequently the at least one school in every parish. Public Education, however, does not fulfilled in Russia or not; it not being of the clergy, where they are kept, or not.
Every grammar-school in Russia use of teachers and scholars, cont volumes. One at Moscow, in a for others have 2000 to 5000 each. No exertions of citizens of fortune in endea Count Demidow has founded three St. Petersburgh-one of 5000 roubles are added to defray the expense of of 2500 roubles each are distributed foundation,
The education department at St books to be printed and distributed tributed in 1846 is stated to have t less than one per head of the nun attending school.
UNITED STA Pennsylvania. - The plan of edu States, but all have a system of pop spection, either by committees, or purposes; and in many States the defrayed by means of a tax raised the valuations of real property. T have been made in Pennsylvania ; of which State agreed, in 1836, to State revenues, to meet the charge counties as should assess a local raf left free to each district to arrange of 1033 districts into which Pennsy 840 agreed to the terms, and asse districts would not adhere to the re 12:26 educational districts in the St 1067 rated the inhabitants for their
The annexed table shows the prog end of 1846, when 7096 schools w 338,805 scholars; or, on an averag 1840 the population of Pennsylvai quently 1 in 5 of the population ha in a common school.
For the whole empire another table gives the number of schools of all kinds, with the universities. They are as follow:
of Scholars. Universities, Lycea, and High Schools
4,339 Grammar Schools, Nobles' Schools.
96 25,714 Civil Schools, Parish and other Elementary Schools,}3,412
The proportion to a population of 60,000,000 is less than 1 to 300 of the inhabitants receiving instruction.
The clergy of the Greek church are bound by strict rules to keep schools; and consequently there is a supposed provision for at least one school in every parish. The report of the Minister of Public Education, however, does not declare whether this duty is fulfilled in Russia or not; it not being specified whether the schools of the clergy, where they are kept, are liable to State inspection or not.
Every grammar-school in Russia has a school library for the use of teachers and scholars, containing occasionally but 180 volumes. One at Moscow, in a foundation school, has 11,315; others have 2000 to 5000 each. Nor is it right to pass over the exertions of citizens of fortune in endeavouring to favour education. Count Demidow has founded three prizes in the Academy of St. Petersburgh-one of 5000 roubles banco, to which 2000 roubles are added to defray the expense of printing. Eight other prizes of 2500 roubles each are distributed from the same munificent foundation.
The education department at St. Petersburgh causes schoolbooks to be printed and distributed. The number officially distributed in 1846 is stated to have been 162,000, or considerably less than one per head of the number of scholars reported as attending school.
UNITED STATES. Pennsylvania.—The plan of education varies in each of the States, but all have a system of popular education involving inspection, either by committees, or by persons appointed for the purposes; and in many States the cost of the common schools is defrayed by means of a tax raised for the purpose, and rated on the valuations of real property. The commencement appears to have been made in Pennsylvania ; the senate and representatives of which State agreed, in 1836, to appropriate a sum out of the State revenues, to meet the charge for public education, in such counties as should assess a local rate for the same purpose.
It was left free to each district to arrange its own plan; and in 1839, out of 1033 districts into which Pennsylvania was divided in that year, 840 agreed to the terms, and assessed a local rate; while 193 districts would not adhere to the regulation. In 1846 there were 1226 educational districts in the State of Pennsylvania, of which 1067 rated the inhabitants for their schools.
The annexed table shows the progress of the system down to the end of 1846, when 7096 schools were reported upon, numbering 338,805 scholars; or, on an average, 45 to a school. In the year 1840 the population of Pennsylvania was 1,724,000, and cousequently I in 5 of the population had the advantage of instruction in a common school.