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COMPARATIVE View of the SYSTEM since its Establishment in 1835.

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The principle upon which this grant
down in Pennsylvania ; according to
rate upon the valuations of real prop
mon schools; and by the New Yor
sum so raised shall be equivalent t
legislature of the State. All schools
are to be inspected, and annually rep
endowment schools are declared by
subject to be visited in like manner.

The system of instruction provide
instruction, by the following clause
entitled to a portion of the school
sectarian doctrine or tenet of any r
religious sect shall be taught, inculca
any book or books containing com
dicial to the particular doctrine or
or which shall teach the doctrine on
sect; or which shall refuse to perr
provided for in this Act.”

Upon this point the report of the
SOCIETY for 1847 remarks: “ By
education, as the trustees are aware,
of religious instruction should be g
persons should bear in mind that,
arising from the variety of religious
but 30 of the 148 hours of the weel
occupied in our schools ; that duri
are to be taught reading, spelling,
astronomy, history, drawing, map
science, and what is called knowled
this short period is liable to be inter
those changes of position, and those
which are indispensable to the hea
dren."

The whole number of children
society on the 1st January, 1847
1112 were coloured.

9.463

10.09

Scholars.

Receipts.

Expenditures.

There were

Dollars. Dollars. Dollars. Dollars. Dollars,
1835 32,544

1•125 Unknown
1836 139,604 | 41

1.06 98,670.54 207,105.37111,803.01 193,972.90
1837 182,355 42; 1.27} 463, 749.55 231,552.36 202, 230·52 493,071.39
1838 174,733 414 1.391 323, 794.92 385,788.00 149, 132.23560, 450-69
1839 181,913 411 !.36 276,826.92 382,527.89 161,384.06579, 162-78
1840 181,913 414 | 1.36.264,536.66 395,918.00 161,384.06580, 262.63
1841 227,699 44 1.26 | 249, 400.84 397,952-01123,004.19524,348.66
1842 281,085 44 1.27 250,065.00 398,766.40 119,006 74 489,872.58
1843

288,762 45 1.21 272, 720.00 419,307.61 92,749.01 484,454. 12
1844 | 288,402 44 1.15 264,520.00 391,340.68 75,918.94 470,228.36
1845 327,418

1.25 192,813.44 370,774.15 77,173.28375,982. 22
1846 333,805 | 45

15 1•23 | 186,417.86 406,740.42 60,960-67 486,475.74
From the table subjoined, the progress of the system adopted in
1835 is made evident in the increase of schools, and of the pro-
portionate amount of expenditure defrayed by local rates, as
compared with the sum appropriated out of the general revenues.

New York.—Although the legislature of the city of New York
appears early to have given attention to education, and to have
annually received a report from a committee appointed for the pur-
pose, the forty-first of this series of reports having been presented
in 1847; yet it was not until 1842 that a law providing for a
regular grant in support of the public schools of the city was passed,

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The principle upon which this grant is founded resembles that laid
down in Pennsylvania ; according to which, localities levy a fixed
rate upon the valuations of real property, for the support of com-
mon schools; and by the New York law, it is decided that the
sum so raised shall be equivalent to the sum given in aid by the
legislature of the State. All schools receiving aid in this manner
are to be inspected, and annually reported upon; and all trust and
endowment schools are declared by the subsequent Act of 1844
subject to be visited in like manner.

The system of instruction provided excludes sectarian religious
instruction, by the following clause: “ But no school shall be
entitled to a portion of the school moneys in which the religious
sectarian doctrine or tenet of any particular Christians or other
religious sect shall be taught, inculcated, or practised; or in which
any book or books containing compositions favourable or preju.
dicial to the particular doctrine or tenets of any Christian sect,
or which shall teach the doctrine or tenets of any other religious
sect; or which shall refuse to permit the visits and examinations
provided for in this Act.”

Upon this point the report of the trustees of the Public School
Society for 1847 remarks: “By some of the friends of public
education, as the trustees are aware, it is thought that a new course
of religious instruction should be given in our schools. But such
persons should bear in mind that, independent of the difficulties
arising from the variety of religious views in this country, there are
but 30 of the 148 hours of the week (6 hours of five days only)
occupied in our schools; that during those 30 hours, the pupils
are to be taught reading, spelling, writing, arithmetic, geography,
astronomy, history, drawing, mapping, the elements of natural
science, and what is called knowledge of common things; and that
this short period is liable to be interrupted by the time requisite for
those changes of position, and those seasons of recess and relaxation,
which are indispensable to the health and happiness of the chil-
dren."

The whole number of children attending the schools of the
society on the 1st January, 1847, was 23,433, of which number
1112 were coloured.

There were

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The population of New York numbers 371,223 inhabitants, to
whom the number at school bears the proportion as 1 to 16
nearly.

Every ward of the city has its school, and these are in most cases divided into boys' and girls' schools, with departments called primary. The total outlay for these schools amounted in 1846 to 264,140 dollars 67 cents, of which 35,404 dollars 71 cents were received from the State School Fund.

Louisiana.—The following account of education in Louisiana is taken from a communication to a Washington newspaper, forwarded by Her Majesty's Minister.

Previous to the year 1841, for a period of near 30 years, the legislature of Louisiana had been engaged in efforts to lay the foundation of a permanent system of education for the people. Munificent appropriations had been lavished with no sparing hand; experiment had succeeded to experiment, each costing much treasure, and each in turn abandoned, as its failure attested the erroneous policy and mistaken judgment of its authors. Without going into the details of all that was done throughout the State, it will be sufficient to glance at the history of education as we find it under the different systems adopted by the legislature for the immediate benefit of the city of New Orleans up to the year 1841, in which city, at that time, commenced the free-school system, which has had, as you will presently see, the most triumphant success, and has given an impulse to the true onward march of public education in every part of Louisiana, and, I may add, in the States of Mississippi and Texas.

On the 6th of March, 1819, an Act was passed, making appropriations for the support of the college of Orleans, a corporation which had been established some years before. By this Act, the regents of the University were authorized to raise a sum not exceeding 25,000 dollars by means of lotteries. An Act, approved February 16th, 1821, entitled “An Act to extend and improve the system of public instruction in the state of Louisiana," abolished the body politic created by law under the title of "The Regents of the University of Orleans," and provided for the formation of a Board of Administrators in lieu thereof, to consist of nine persons residing in the city, who were to be annually appointed by the Governor and Senate. By the 11th section of the Act, the sum of 1000 dollars, in addition to the 4000 dollars appropriated under previous laws, was to be paid by the Treasurer of the State for the support of the college.

Subsequently, the legislature passed another Act, abolishing entirely the corporation of the college of Orleans, and establishing one central and two primary schools in the city and suburbs. By this law, 50 children, chosen from among the poorer class, were admitted into each of the schools, free of charge, on their being presented to the director of the schools either by their president or the mayor of the city. None of the children to be admitted gratuitously were to be under the age of 7, or above the age of 14 years. By the Act of 1827, the number of pupils entitled to gratuitous admittance into each of the schools was not to exceed 100. Under the administration of the gentlemen composing the regency these institutions were conducted with various success until the 16th of February, 1841 : the same may be said of the other institutions fostered by the legislature throughout the state.

If, then, up to this period, the expectations and wishes of the friends of education had been disappointed, you will perceive it did not arise from indifference to the subject, or from want of liberality in the expenditure of money, on the part of the people. The failure must rather be attributed to some imperfect organization of the school system, or to defective administration of the various plans of education adopted by the legislature. At any rate, in the year 1841, the magnitude of the evil was felt so keenly that a number of zealous and enterprising men held a meeting in New Orleans for the purpose of devising some remedy; and the result of their deliberations was, a successful application to the legislature for the passage of an Act authorizing the several municipal corpora. tions to establish and organize, in such a manner as might to them seem judicious, “public schools in each municipality for the gratuitous education of the children residing therein, to which public schools all resident white children were to be admitted.” By this Act, too, power is granted to the councils to levy taxes for the support of the schools, and the Treasurer of the State is required to pay annually for their support, to each municipality, the sum of 8 dollars 62} cents for each and every taxable inhabitant in said municipalities, as paid by law to other parishes.

Shortly after the passage of this Act, the council of the second municipality created a Board of Directors of public schools, by selecting 12 of its respected fellow-citizens, who, together with its standing committee on public education, were intrusted with authority to prescribe rules and discipline for the schools, directing the system and course of education therein, and selecting teachers.

The system of instruction introduced into these schools, and the rules by which they have been governed, are in strict accordance with those prescribed by enlightened experience in the larger cities and towns throughout the United States.

The schools are of three grades—the primary, the intermediate, and the high schools. Children are admitted at six years of age : they are placed in the primary department, whatever may be their age, until they have some knowledge of reading, writing on slates, and mental arithmetic; in the intermediate department are taught reading, writing, geography, English grammar, history, the writing of the English language, vocal music, French, and, to the boys, declamation. A few verses of the sacred Scriptures are read, without note or comment, on the opening of the schools in the morning, succeeded by a form of prayer prescribed by the Board of Directors. The teachers are required to inculcate upon their pupils, on all proper occasions, the principles of morality and virtue.

By Article 133, a superintendent of public education is to be appointed, to hold his office for two years ; his duties to be pre

may direct.

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scribed by law, and to receive such compensation as the legislature

By Article 134, the legislature shall establish free public schools throughout the state, and shall provide means for their support, by taxation or otherwise.

By Articles 135 and 136, certain specified funds, such as the proceeds of public lands, &c., are to be appropriated to the support of such schools.

By Articles 137, 138, and 139, a university shall be established in the city of New Orleans, to be composed of four faculties, to wit —one of law, one of medicine, one of the natural sciences, and one of letters. For its further organization and government the legislature shall provide by law.

Washington.-By an Act passed in 1944, the city of Washington is divided into four districts for educational purposes, to be directed by trustees consisting of three persons from each school district, with the mayor of the city

of the city as president. School-rooms were to be built at the state expense, but confined to the use of the white population. Tuition fees of 50 cents per month, except in the case of extreme poverty, to be enacted, but if wholly unable to pay, children are to be admitted to instruction free, and to be furnished, at the public cost, with books and stationery.

The annexed table will exhibit the number of pay and free pupils in the sereral schools at the close of the year, the amount of appropriation for the support of the schools, the amount expended, and the balance or excess respectively, up to the 31st July, 1847.

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Expenditure. Amount expended for tuition of poor children at the con

and Lancasterian schools, including books, compensati

officers, and all other expenses Amount at district schools

Total for tuition and expenses

.

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Average actual attendance of each poor ch
58 th days, equal to nearly 12 weeks.

Average amount paid for tuition of each po
Lancasteriau schools, 2.41 dollars.

Average at district schools, 2-65 dollars.

Average cost per diem of tuition and exp sent to common and Lancasterian schools, 4,4

Virginia has adopted the plan of local Acts passed by the legislature between 181 of which will be apparent from the followin

“ It shall be the duty of the Courts of the and corporate towns, represented in the Ger the borough of Norfolk (annually], in the as soon thereafter as may be, to appoint not than 15 discreet persons, to be called Sch the counties, cities, the said corporatet Norfolk, respectively, in which they may be moreover, make an order, directing their sergeants to notify such Commissioners of the

* All money, funds, debts, or other prop overseers of the

poor

of

any county or cor

Virginia.—The care of education was for many years undertaken by a society termed the “ Literary Fund Society,” but in 1842 the State took the burthen upon itself, and School Commissioners were named by each County and Corporation Court. The capital of the “Literary Fund " invested in the public stocks amounted to 1,472,560 dolls. 82 cents, the interest of which was 91,923 dolls. 29 cents, out of which 89,390 dolls. 86 cents was paid to the University and other schools.

• Average.

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