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ments in the knowledge of that which, in truth, most concerns his relations to things seen, whilst it speaks to him of things unseen. The poor man, and the poor man's child, find here the best exercise of feeling, and the chief exercise of imagination and thought, that is permitted them. The Bible is the poor man's great instructor in many respects besides that which is highest of all. Here he comes in contact with the most and the greatest of the questions that, of nature and necessity, present themselves to him; questions, many of them which he feels that he must rightly answer, or sicken and perish; here his interests are concentrated; to this he applies all his knowledge that does not immediately concern the labour by which he lives; this is the field on which he delights to exercise whatever intelligence he possesses; and long may it remain so--our country's peculiar blessing,—its strongest safeguard.

The religious instruction had almost everywhere received much of the attention it deserves, and was, at least, in a fair state.

This had been the subject of the lessons to which most preparation and attention had been given by the teacher; and very much of the general instruction of the school had been communicated in connexion with it. In some schools the clergyman had taken the chief religious lesson on himself, and with the best effect, when done systematically and regularly.

I believe that great benefit would result, if more pains were taken to have well-selected portions of Scripture committed to memory; if the children of the first class had each a Reference Bible, which they could take home, and use in the preparation of the next Scriptural lesson ; and if they were always required, after the lesson, to write down an account of suitable portions of what had been learned, and to which their attention had been specially directed.

GEOGRAPHY.-In many schools this instruction was successfully given, to the extent of the most needful portions of descriptive geography. Nevertheless it was not unusual to find an accurate acquaintance with some less important portions of the subject, such as the details respecting continental nations; whilst far more useful portions—such, for instance, as the mining districts of England, its seaports, its means of internal communication, or the colonies of the British empire-were comparatively neglected. It was rare to find much acquaintance with astronomical or physical geography.

Frequently the school was well provided with maps, whilst the scholars' knowledge of that which they were intended to illustrate was most meagre. In fact, a large proportion of the teachers do not possess knowledge sufficient to teach geography with effect. At the same time no part of their instruction, when well given, is better calculated to interest the scholars, and beneficially to enlarge the circle of their knowledge. In connexion with geography should be introduced most of the knowledge of nature which is suitable for children; and much, too, of what they should learn respecting the arts, by which nature is made subservient to man's use. Its useful illustration, moreover, of their little stores of history, derived from the Bible and the history of their own country, is obvious.

History of ENGLAND. Some book on this subject was read in many boys' schools, and in a few girls' schools; and the children often showed considerable knowledge. None of the books, however, are well calculated for the use of schools; and it is only the inherent interest of the subject that makes the children so fond of it as they manifestly are. A really good History of England, written by one that knows children, their needs and their likings, would be a great treasure. It should be simple, but not condescending, in style. It might do little more than catalogue a good many of our kings; still such a catalogue would seem, at least, to form as good a chronological table as could be given. It should dwell on portions of greatest moment, and on individual actors in the scenes described, and concentrate about them, in vivid pictures, all that needs to be told. It should select, for description and illustration, what the poor man's child is most likely to understand and to realize by analogy with his own experience. Little of all this characterised any of the books that I found in use. The book wanted is one most difficult to produce, and requires the laborious application of rare gists, and of opportunities rare to all but the schoolmaster. To a cultivated race of schoolmasters must we look for the supply of this, and of the many other school-books of which we stand in need.

English GrammaR.--In most schools the progress made did not exceed a very imperfect acquaintance with the parts of speech; in some, however, the scholars had attained to a creditable knowledge of the chief rules of syntax. The derivation of words was not often taught; indeed no teacher, who has not some acquaintance with Latin, and who has not given special attention to the subject, can teach this with much useful effect. When properly taught, however, it is highly instructive, and leads to many a useful collateral lesson on words, and the objects for which they stand.

The great want in schools, as regards instruction in written language, seemed to be a suitable set of exercises. Surely the dry form, in which grammar is usually presented to the advanced scholars in our National schools, is scarcely the best adapted to them. The subject would have a fresh interest and use, if employed in connexion with simple exercises in composition. A most desirable, an essential, end of our school-education is to enable the child to express himself in writing, upon subjects suited to his capacity, with ease and correctness. It is no easy task to get a child to express his ideas vivâ voce with facility; and in the

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schools of Germany a considerable time is employed, comers, solely in exercising them to do this. Much ilt is it to secure a ready and correct expression of ting, without which most of the practical benefits, to from learning to write, are lost ; and to do this, systeises would seem quite necessary. The best school

sensible of the want, and strive in various ways to The Rev. Joseph Edwards, and Mr. Chambers, in onal Course, have published such exercises; but I have them in use. :-In most schools this is only taught by ear, and is ); in some, however, where the teaching is only by ear, a sing very pleasingly.

schools there was good teaching by note, and with atisfactory results. Perhaps the best instance of this kerstaffe, where there is an organ, and the schools are I closed with chanting and hymns.

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reneral Remarks on the State of Instruction.
anifest that the state of instruction in these schools is,
b, very imperfect. Doubtless, the next few years may
ed to introduce a great improvement; but it will be by,

measure, supplanting the present teachers, or by im-
such as are able and willing to improve. They are
reat efforts, and they have a strong stimulus to do so;
bread is at stake. There is only one practicable way,
In think of, for introducing any great improvement in
hey are now, viz., by the regular and systematic exertions
rgyman. It has been for some time said and repeated,
much truth, “As is the clergyman, so is the school. ”
ith too much truth, because it shows the inefficiency of
olmaster. As the schoolmaster improves, the duties of
gyman, with respect to his school, will become less
and yet the school be a more effective aid to him in his
than ever ; i. e., so long as the word “education” is
ed to mean “religious education,” and as that considera-
inues duly to influence the teaching.
are two principal ways in which the clergyman, by his
ay benefit his school; but they will effect. little good if not
out systematically, with forethought, labour, and perse-
egularity; just as it is in every other like matter.
; the clergyman may take some part of the instruction;
.h the universally existing deficiency of teaching power, he

ail to aid effectively the teacher's endeavours, if he do but take some definite portions of the work, corresponding with, and supplementing, the rest.

Secondly; the clergyman, by systematic and recurring exashould be introduced most of the knowledge of nature which is suitable for children; and much, too, of what they should learn respecting the arts, by which nature is made subservient to man's use.

Its useful illustration, moreover, of their little stores of history, derived from the Bible and the history of their own country, is obvious.

HISTORY OF ENGLAND.Some book on this subject was read in many boys' schools, and in a few girls' schools, and the children often showed considerable knowledge. None of the books, however, are well calculated for the use of schools; and it is only the inherent interest of the subject that makes the children so fond of it as they manifestly are. A really good History of England, written by one that knows children, their needs and their likings, would be a great treasure, It should be simple, but not condescending, in style. It might do little more than catalogue a good many of our kings; still such a catalogue would seem, at least, to form as good a chronological table as could be given.

could be given. It should dwell on portions of greatest moment, and on individual actors in the scenes described, and concentrate about them, in vivid pictures, all that needs to be told. It should select, for description and illustration, what the poor man's child is most likely to understand and to realize by analogy with his own experience. Little of all this characterised any of the books that I found in use, The book wanted is one most difficult to produce, and requires the laborious application of rare gifts, and of opportunities rare to all but the schoolmaster. To à cultivated race of schoolmasters must we look for the supply of this, and of the many other school-books of which we stand in need.

ENGLISH GRAMMAR.-In most schools the progress made did not exceed a very imperfect acquaintance with the parts of speech; in some, however, the scholars had attained to a creditable knowledge of the chief rules of syntax. The derivation of words was not often taught; indeed no teacher, who has not some acquaintance with Latin, and who has not given special attention to the subject, can teach this with much useful effect. When properly taught, however, it is highly instructive, and leads to many a useful collateral lesson on words, and the objects for which they stand.

The great want in schools, as regards instruction in written language, seemed to be a suitable set of exercises. Surely the dry form, in which grammar is usually presented to the advanced scholars in our National schools, is scarcely the best adapted to them. The subject would have a fresh interest and use, if employed in connexion with simple exercises in composition. A most desirable, an essential, end of our school-education is to enable the child to express himself in writing, upon subjects suited 10 his capacity, with ease and correctness. It is no easy task to get a child to express his ideas vivâ voce with facility; and in the higher-class schools of Germany a considerable time is employed, for the new comers, solely in exercising them to do this. Much more difficult is it to secure a ready and correct expression of ideas in writing, without which most of the practical benefits, to be derived from learning to write, are lost ; and to do this, systematic exercises would seem quite necessary. The best school- . masters are sensible of the want, and strive in various ways to supply it. The Rev. Joseph Edwards, and Mr. Chambers, in his Educational Course, have published such exercises; but I have never seen them in use.

Singing.-In most schools this is only taught by ear, and is poorly done; in some, however, where the teaching is only by ear, the children sing very pleasingly.

In a few schools there was good teaching by note, and with the most satisfactory results. Perhaps the best instance of this was at Bickerstaffe, where there is an organ, and the schools are opened and closed with chanting and hymns.

General Remarks on the State of Instruction. It is manifest that the state of instruction in these schools is, in general, very imperfect. Doubtless, the next few years may be expected to introduce a great improvement; but it will be by, in a great measure, supplanting the present teachers, or by improving such as are able and willing to improve. They are making great efforts, and they have a strong stimulus to do so; for their bread is at stake. There is only one practicable way, that I can think of, for introducing any great improvement in them, as they are now, viz., by the regular and systematic exertions of the clergyman. It has been for some time said and repeated, , with too much truth, “As is the clergyman, so is the school. ” I say, with too much truth, because it shows the inefficiency of the schoolmaster. As the schoolmaster improves, the duties of the clergyman, with respect to his school, will become less onerous; and yet the school be a more effective aid to him in his ministry than ever ; i. e., so long as the word “education ” is considered to mean “religious education,” and as that consideration continues duly to influence the teaching,

There are two principal ways in which the clergyman, by his visits, may benefit his school; but they will effect little good if not carried out systematically, with forethought, labour, and persevering regularity; just as it is in every other like matter.

First; the clergyman may take some part of the instruction; and, with the universally existing deficiency of teaching power, he cannot fail to aid effectively the teacher's endeavours, if he do but take some definite portions of the work, corresponding with, and supplementing, the rest.

Secondly; the clergyman, by systematic and recurring exa

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