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same simplicity of composition, as we before observed, is frequent in Scripture; which in that Divine book is a great beauty, and an evidence both of its truth and of its antiquity. For had the diction been more elaborate, it would bave had too much the air of human contrivance, and of the arts of later times. But in other compositions, the same unadorned simplicity would not always be agreeable: for we are not displeased to find human decorations in a work of human art. Besides, the sentiments of inspiration support themselves by their intrinsic dignity ; whereas those of men must often be supported and recommended by the graces of language. The inspired author commands our attention, and has a right to it: but other writers must sooth and amuse, in order to prevail with us to attend. The same ornaments, which we admire in a private apartment, are unseemly in a temple ; and that rhetorical art which in Virgil and Cicero is delightful, would be quite unsuitable to the majesty of Scripture.
INTERJECTIONS are words thrown in between the parts of a sentence, to express the passions or emotions of a speaker; as, “Oh! I have alienated my friend ; alas! I fear for life:" "O virtue! how amiable thou art!"
The English interjections, as well as those of other languages, are comprised within a small compass. They are of different sorts, according to the different passions which they serve to express. Those which intimate earnestness or grief, are, O! oh! ah! alas! Such as are expressive of contempt, are, pish! tush! of wonder, heigh! really! strange! of calling, hem? ho! soho! of aversion or disgust, foh! fie! away! of a call of the attention, lo! behold! hark ! of requesting silence, hush! hist! of salutation, welcome! hail ! all hail ! Besides these, many others, often in the mouths of the multitude, might be enumerated. But we have perhaps mentioned a sufficient number of them. Any word or phrase may indeed become an interjection, or, at least, it may be used as such, when it is expressed with emotion, and in an unconnected manner : as, behold! peace! strange! ungrateful creature! folly in the extreme !
Interjections are not so much the signs of thought, as of feeling. That a creature so inured to articulate sound as man is, should acquire the habit of attering, without reflection, certain vocal sounds, when he is assaulted by any strong passion, or becomes conscious of any intense feeling, is natural enough. Indeed, by continual practice, this habit becomes so powerful, that, in certain cases, we should find it difficult to resist it, even if we wished to do so. When attacked by acute pain, it is hardly possible for us to refrain from saying oh! ah ! &c. : and when we are astonished at any narrative or event, the words, strange! prodigious ! indeed! break from us, without any effort of the will.
Interjections, though frequent in discourse, do not often occur in elegant composition. Unpractised writers, however, are apt to abound in the use of them, in order, as they imagine, to give pathos to their style : which is nearly the same as if, with the view of rendering conversation witty or humorous, one were to interrupt it with frequent peals of laughter. The appearance of violent emotion in others, does not always raise violent emotion in us : our hearts, for the most part, are more effectually subdued, by a sedate and simple utterance, than by strong interjections and theatrical gesture. At any rate, composure is more graceful than extravagance: and therefore, a multitude of these passionate words and particles will generally, at least on common occasions, savour more of levity than of dignity, of want of thought than of keen sensation. This holds in common discourse, as well as in writing. They who wish to speak often, and have little to say, are apt to abound in exclamations; wonderful, amazing, prodigious, O dear, dear me, surprising, astonishing, and the like and hence the too frequent use of such words tends to breed a suspicion that one labours under a scantiness of ideas. Interjections denoting imprecation, and those in which the Divine Name is irreverently mentioned, are always offensive to a pious mind : and the writer or speaker, who contracts a habit of introducing them, may, without breach of charity, be suspected of profaneness.
Of the various ways in which words are derived from one another.
HAVING treated of the different sorts of words, and their various modifications, which is the first part of Etymology, it is now proper to explain the methods by which one word is derived from another.
Words are derived from one another in various ways, viz. 1. Substantives, are derived from verbs.
2. Verbs are derived from substantives, adjectives, and sometimes from adverbs.
3. Adjectives are derived from substantives. 4. Substantives are derived from adjectives. 5. Adverbs are derived from adjectives.
1. Substantives are derived from verbs : as, from “ to love," comes “ lover;" from “ to visit, visiter;" from " to survive, surviver," &c.
In the following instances, and in many others, it is difficult to determine, whether the verb was deduced from the noun, or the noun from the verb, viz. “Love, to love ; hate, to hate ; fear, to fear; sleep, to sleep; walk, to walk; ride, to ride ; act, to act,” &c.
2. Verbs are derived from substantives, adjectives, and sometimes from adverbs; as, from the substantive salt, comes, " to salt;" from the adjective warm, “ to warm ;” and from the adverb forward,“ to forward.” Sometimes they are formed by lengthening the vowel, or softening the consonant: as, from “grass, to graze;" sometimes by adding en : as, from
length, to lengthen ;'' especially to adjectives : as, from “short, to shorten,” “ bright to brighten.
3. Adjectives are derived from substantives, in the following manner: Adjectives denoting plenty are derived from substantives by adding y: as, from “ Health, healthy; wealth, wealthy; might, mighty," &c.
Adjectives denoting the matter out of which any thing is made, are derived from substantives by adding en : as, from “Oak, oaken; wood, wooden; wool, woollen,” &c.
Adjectives denoting abundance are derived from substantives, by adding ful : as, from “ Joy, joyful ; sin, sinful; fruit, fruitful," &c.
Adjectives denoting plenty, but with some kind of diminution, are derived from substantives, by adding some : as, from “Light, lightsome; trouble, troublesome; toil, toilsóme,” &c.
Adjectives denoting want are derived from substantives, by adding less : as, from “Worth, worthless ;" from
care, careless; joy, joyless," &c.
Adjectives denoting likeness are derived from substantives, by adding ly: as, from “Man, manly ; earth, earthly ; court, courtly," &c.
Some adjectives are derived from other adjectives, or from substantives, by adding ish to them ; which termination, when added to adjectives, imports diminution, or lessening the quality : as, “White, whitish;" i. e. somewhat white. When added to substantives, it signifies similitude or tendency to a character: as, “Child, childish; thief, thievish.??
Some adjectives are formed from substantives or verbs, by adding the termination able ; and those adjectives signify capacity: ás, “ Answer, answerable ; to change, changeable.”
4. Substantives are derived from adjectives, sometimes by adding the termination ness: as, “White, whiteness; swift, swiftness :" sometimes by adding th or t, and making a small change in some of the letters: as, “Long, length; high, height."
5. Adverbs of quality are derived from adjectives, by adding ly, or changing le into ly; and denote the same quality as the adjectives from which they are derived: as, from “ base,” comes “basely;" from "slow, slowly;" from “able, ably."
There are so many other ways of deriving words from one another, that it would be extremely difficult, and nearly impossible, to enumerate them. The primitive words of any language are very few; the derivatives form much the greater number. A few more instances only can be given here.
Some substantives are derived from other substantives, by adding the terminations hood or head, ship, ery, wick, rick, dom, ian, ment, and age.
Substantives ending in hood or head, are such as signify character, or qualities : as, “ Manhood, knighthood, falsehood," &c.
Substantives ending in ship, are those that signify office, employment, state, or condition: as, “ Lordship, stewardship,
partnership,” &c. Some substantives in ship, are derived from adjectives : as, “ Hard, hardship,” &c.
Substantives which end in ery, signify action or habit : as, “Slavery, foolery, prudery," &c. Some substantives of this sort come from adjectives: as, "Brave, bravery,” &c.
Substantives ending in wick, rick, and dom, denote dominion, jurisdiction or condition : as, " Bailiwick, bishoprick, kingdom, dukedom, freedom," &c.
Substantives which end in ian, are those that signify profession : as, “ Physician, musician,” &c. Those that end in ment and age, come generally from the French, and commonly signify the act or habit: as, “Commandment, usage.”
Some substantives ending in ard, are derived from verbs or adjectives, and denote character or habit: as, " Drunk, drunkard; dote, dotard."
Some substantives have the form of diminutives; but these are not many. They are formed by adding the terminations, kin, ling, ing, ock, el, and the like: as, “ Lamb, lambkin; goose, gosling; duck, duckling ; hill, hillock; cock, cockerel," &c.
That part of derivation which consists in tracing English words to the Greek, Latin, French, and other languages, must be omitted, as the English scholar is not supposed to be acquainted with these languages. The best English Dictionaries will, however, furnish some information on this head, to those who are desirous of obtaining it. The learned Horne Tooke, in his “Diversions of Purley," has given an ingenious account of the derivation and meaning of many of the adverbs, conjunctions, and prepositions : and as the student will doubtless be amused, by tracing to their Saxon origin some of these words, we shall present him with a list or specimen of them ; which we presume will be sufficient to excite his curiosity, and induce him to examine the subject more extensively. ABOUT—is derived from a, on, and bout, signifying boundary :
On the boundary or confines. AmonG or amongst-comes from the passive participle ge
manced, which is from gemengan, to mix. AND-is from the imperative an-ad, which is from the verb,
anan-ad, signifying to accumulate, to add to : as, “ Two
and two are four ;" that is, “ Two add two are four." ASUNDER—comes from the participle asundred of the verb
asundrian, to separate : and this verb is from sond, sand. ATIWART—is derived from the passive participle athweoried
of the verb athweorian, to wrest. BEYOND-comes from be-geond: geond, or goned, is the pas