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" If policy can prevail upon force;" “ over force."
Fourth-With respect to the prepositions in, FROM, &c.
“ They should be informed in some parts of his character;": "about," or "concerning."
Upon such occasions as fell into their cognizance ;"“ under."
“ That variety of factions into which we are still engaged;" “ in which.” “ To restore myself into the favour;" “ to the favour."
• “Could he have profited from repeated experiences ;"” “ by." From seems to be superfluous after forbear : as, “ He could not forbear from appointing the pope,” &c. “A strict observance after times and fashions ;"“ of times."
The character which we may now value ourselves by drawing ;" “ upon drawing.”
“Neither of them shall make me swerve out of the path ;") " from the path."
“ Ye blind guides, which strain at a gnat, and swallow a camel ;” it ought to be," which strain out a gnat, or, take a gnat out of the liquor by straining it.” The impropriety of the preposition, as Dr. Lowth observes, has wholly destroyed the meaning of the phrase.
The verb to found, when used literally, is more properly followed by the preposition on : as, “ The house was founded
: on'a rock.” But in the metaphorical application, it is often better with in; as in this sentence, “ They maintained, that
2 dominion is founded in grace.” Both the sentences would be badly expressed, if these prepositions were transposed; though there are perhaps cases in which either of them would be good.
The preposition among generally implies a number of things. It cannot be properly used in conjunction with the word every, which is in the singular number: as, “Which is found among every species of liberty ;" “ The opinion seems to gain ground among every body."
5. The preposition to is made use of before nouns of place, when they follow verbs and participles of motion : as, “I went to London ;" “ I am going to town." But the preposition at is generally used after the neuter verb to be: as, “I have been at London ;” “I was at the place appointed;" “ I shall be at París." We likewise say: "He touched, arrived at any place.” The preposition in is set before countries, cities, and large towns: as, “He lives in France, in London, or in Birmingham.” But before villages, single
houses, and cities which are in distant countries, at is used : as, “ He lives at Hackney;" “ He resides at Montpelier."
It is a matter of indifference with respect to the pronoun one another, whether the preposition of be placed between the two parts of it, or before them both. We may say, “ They
· were jealous of one another;" or, " They were jealous one of another;" but perhaps the former is better.
Participles are frequently used as prepositions : as, excepting, respecting, touching, concerning, according. were all in fault except or excepting him."
CONJUNCTIONS connect the same moods and tenses of verbs, and cases of nouns and pronouns: as, “ Candour is to be approved and practised;" “ If thou sincerely desire, and earnestly pursue virtue, she will assuredly be found by thee, and prove a rich reward;" “The master taught both her and me to write;" " He and she were school-fellows."*
See Vol. ii. Part. 3. Exercises. Chap. 1. Rule 18.
A few examples of inaccuracy respecting this rule, may further display its utility. “If he prefer a virtuous life, and is sincere in his professions, he will succeed ;" “ if he prefers." “ To deride the miseries of the unbappy, is inhuman ; and wanting compassion towards them, is unchristian;" "and to want compassion.” “The parliament addressed the king, and has been prorogued the same day;"? " and was prorogued.” “ His wealth and him bid adieu to each other;"" "and he.” “He entreated us my comrade and I, to live harmoniously;" " comrade and me. “My sister and her were on good terms ;"" and she.” “We often overlook the blessings which are in our possession, and are searching after those which are out of our reach :" it ought to be," and search after.”
Conjunctions are, indeed, frequently made to connect different moods and tenses of verbs : but, in many of these instances, the nominative must be repeated; and perhaps, in most of the others, it may be resumed with propriety and advantage. The following examples illustrate this position. “He is at present temperate, though he was formerly the reverse;" “ Can he perform the service, and will he perform it ?” “ How privileged they are, and how happy they might be !” “ He has
*This rule refers only to nouns and pronouns, which have the same bearing or re. lation, with regard to the other parts of the sentence.
done much for them, though he might have done more ;" They did all that was in their power to serve him, and most assuredly, they should not be reproached for not doing more ;" “ He cheerfully supports his distressed friend, and he will certainly be commended for it;" “ They have rewarded him liberally, and, indeed, they could not do otherwise;" “ She was once proud, though she is now humble. It is obvious, that, in the preceding instances, and in others of a similar construction, the nominative is either necessarily, or with propriety and effect, repeated; and that, by this means, the latter members of these sentences are rendered not so closely dependent on the former as those are which come strictly under the rule.
When, in the progress of a sentence, the current is interrupted, and we pass from the affirmative to the negative form, or from the negative to the affirmative, the repetition of the nominative is, perbaps, in most instances, required; especially if the expression be emphatic; as, “ They may reside in India for a time, though they cannot long continue there :” “ They cannot long continue in India, though they may reside there for a time;" “ Though I admire him greatly, yet I do not love him;" “ He is not in affluent circumstances, but still he is eminently useful."
“ Though she was high-born, beautiful, and accomplished, yet she was not perfect.”—There appears to be, in general, equal reason for resuming the nominative, when the course of the sentence is diverted, by a change of the mood or the tense.
If criticism should be able to produce exceptions to the eighteenth Rule, or to any of the subordinate observations, we presume they will nevertheless be found useful and proper general directions. Rules are not to be subverted, because they admit of exceptions. The positions and illustrations under the present rule, may, at least, serve to assist the student, on many occasions, to determine when it is requisite to repeat the nominative, and when it may be properly omitted.
Some conjunctions require the indicative, some the subjunctive mood, after them. It is a general rule, that when something contingent or doubtful is implied, the subjunctive ought to be used: as, “ If I were to write, he would not regard it;" “ He will not be pardoned, unless he repent."
Conjunctions that are of a positive and absolute nature, require the indicative mood. “ As virtue advances, so vice recedes ;” “He is healthy, because he is temperate.”
See Vol. ii. Part 3. Exercises, Chap. 1. Rule 19. The conjunctions, if, though, unless, except, whether, &c. generally require the subjunctive mood after them : as, “ If thou be afflicted, repine not ;" “ Though he slay me, yet will I trust in him;"” “ He cannot be clean unless he wash himself;" “No power, except it were given from above;" " Whether it were I or they, so we preach.” But even these conjunctions, when the sentence does not imply doubt, admit of the indicative : : as, « Though he is poor,
he is contented.” The following example may, in some measure, serve to illustrate the distinction between the subjunctive and the indicative moods ; “ Though he were divinely inspired, and spoke therefore as the oracles of God, with supreme authority; though he were endued with supernatural powers, and could, therefore, have confirmed the truth of what he uttered, by miracles: yet, in compliance with the way in which human nature and reasonable creatures are usually wrought upon, he reasoned.” That our Saviour was divinely inspired, and endued with supernatural powers, are positions that are here taken for granted, as not admitting the least doubt; they would therefore have been better expressed in the indicative mood : “Though he was divinely inspired; though he was endued with supernatural powers.” The subjunctive is used in the like improper manner, in the following example: “ Though he were a son, yet learned he obedience, by the things which he suffered.” But, in a similar passage, the indicative, with great propriety, is employed to the same purpose : “ Though he was rich, yet for your sakes he became poor."
1. Lest and that, annexed to a command preceding, neces. sarily require the subjunctive mood : as, “ Love not sleep, lest thou come to poverty;" " Reprove not
> Reprove not a scorner, lest he hate thee;"? “ Take heed that thou speak not to Jacob.”
If with but following it, when futurity is denoted, requires the subjunctive mood: as, “ If he do but touch the hills, they shall smoke;" “ If he be but discreet, he will succeed.” But the indicative ought to be used, on this occasion, when future time is not signified: as, “If, in this expression, he does but jest, no offence should be taken;" “ If she is but sincere, I am happy.” The same distinction applies to the following forms of expression: “If he do submit, it will be from necessity;" “Though he does submit, he is not convinced ;” “If thou do not reward this service, he will be discouraged, “If thou dost heartily forgive him, endeavour to forget the offence."
2. In the following instances, the conjunction that, expressed or understood, seems to be improperly accompanied with the subjunctive mood. “So much she dreaded his tyranny, that the fate of her friend she dare not lament." soned so artfully that his friends would listen, and think [that] he were not wrong.”
“ He rea
3. The same conjunction governing both the indicative and the subjunctive moods, in the same sentence, and in the same circumstances, seems to be a great impropriety; as in these instances. “If there be but one body of legislators, it is no better than a tyranny: if there are only two, there will want a casting voice."
“If a man have a hundred sheep, and one of them is gone astray," &c.
4. Almost all the irregularities, in the construction of any language, have arisen from the ellipsis of some words, which were originally inserted in the sentence, and made it regular; and it is probable, that this has been generally the case with respect to the conjunctive form of words, now in use; which will appear from the following examples: “ We shall overtake him though he run;" that is, “ though he should run ;"“ Unless he act prudently, he will not accomplish his purpose;"> that is, “ unless he shall act prudently.” “If he succeed and obtain his end, he will not be the happier for it:" that is, “If he should succeed, and should obtain his end." These remarks and examples are designed to show the original of many of our present conjunctive forms of expression, and to enable the student to examine the propriety of using them, by tracing the words in question to their proper origin and ancient connexions. But it is necessary to be more particular on this subject, and therefore we shall add a few observations respecting it.
That part of the verb which grammarians call the present tense of the subjunctive mood, has a future signification. This is effected by varying the terminations of the second and third persons singular of the indicative; as will be evident from the following examples: “If thou prosper, thou shouldst be thankful:" “ Unless he study more closely, he will never be learned.” Some writers however, would express these sentiments without those variations ; " If thou prosperest,” &c. “Unless he studies," &c. : and as there is great diversity of practice in this point, it is proper to offer the learners a few remarks, to assist them in distinguishing the right application of these different forms of expression. It may be considered as a rule, that the changes of termination are necessary, when these two circumstances concur : 1st, When the subject is of a dubious and contingent nature; and 2d. When the verb has a reference