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very improper. “There is never wanting a set of evil instruments, who either out of mad zeal, private hatred, or filthy lucre, are always ready,” &c. We say properly, “A man acts out of mad zeal," or, “out of private hatred,” but we cannot say, if we would speak English, "he acts out of filthy lucre." "To double her kindness and caresses of me:" the word “kindness” requires to be followed by either to or for, and cannot be construed with the preposition of. “Never was man so teased or suffered half the uneasiness, as I have done this evening :" the first and third clauses, viz.

6 Never was man so teased, as I have done this evening,” cannot be joined without an impropriety; and to connect the second and third, the word that must be substituted for as ;

" Or suffered balf the uneasiness that I have done;" or else, "half so much uneasiness as I have suffered."

The first part of the following sentence abounds with adverbs, and those such as are hardly consistent with one another: “ How much soever the reformation of this degenerate age is almost utterly to be despaired of, we may yet have a more comfortable prospect of future times." The sentence would be more correct in the following form:" Though the reformation of this degenerate age is nearly to be despaired of,”' &c.

“Oh! shut not up my soul with the sinners, nor my life with the blood-thirsty; in whose hands is wickedness, and their right hand is full of gifts.” As the passage, introduced by the copulative conjunction and, was not intended as a continuation of the principal and independent part of the sen. tence, but of the dependent part, the relative whose should have been used instead of the possessive their ; viz. “and whose right hand is full of gifts."

The following sentences, which give the passive voice the regimen of an active verb, are very irregular, and by no means to be imitated. “ The bishops and abbots were allowed their seats in the house of lords. 66 Tbrasea was forbidden the presence of the emperor.” “He was shown that very story in one of his own books." These sentences should have been ; " The bishops and abbots were allowed to have (or to take) their seats in the house of lords;" or, “Seats in the house of lords were allowed to the bishops and abbots :" “ Thrasea was forbidden to approach the presence of the emperor;" or, “ The presence of the emperor was forbidden to Thrasea :" "That very story was shown to him in one of his own books.'

The subsequent paragraph contains forms of sentences, which, though they are not uncommon, have an irregular construction, and should, with others of a similar nature, be carefully avoided. “The meeting was obliged to be defer

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red.” “They are expected to be sent for next week." “He was forced to be lifted into his carriage.'

6. The horses were ordered to be exercised every day.”—These sentences may be corrected in the following manner.

“It was necessary to defer the meeting ;" or, “The meeting was necessarily deferred.”

They expect to be sent for next week;" or, “ It is expected they will be sent for next week.” “He was under the necessity of being lifted into his carriage ;" or, “It was necessary to lift him into his carriage.” “ Orders were given to exercise the horses every day ;' or, “ They ordered that the horses should be exercised every day."

“ Eye hath not seen, nor ear heard, neither have entered into the heart of man, the things which God hath prepared for them that love him." There seems to be an impropriety in this sentence, in which the same noun serves in a double capacity, performing at the same time the offices both of the nominative and objective cases. " Neither hath it entered into the heart of man, to conceive the things," &c. would have been regular.

“We have the power of retaining, altering, and compounding those images which we have once received, into all the varieties of picture and vision.” It is very proper to say, “altering and compounding those images which we have once received, into all the varieties of picture and vision;" but we can with no propriety say, “retaining them into all the varieties ;” and yet, according to the manner in which the words are ranged, this construction is unavoidable: for, “retaining, altering, and compounding," are participles, each of which equally refers to and governs the subsequent noun, those images, and that noun again is necessarily connected with the following preposition, into. The construction might easily have been rectified, by disjoining the participle retaining from the other two participles, in this way: We have the power of retaining those images which we have once received, and of altering and compounding them into all the varieties of picture and vision;" or, perhaps better thus: “We have the power of retaining, altering, and compounding those images which we have once received, and of forming them into all the varieties of picture and vision."

THE INTERJECTION.

The syntax of the Interjection is of so very limited a nature, that it does not require a distinct; appropriate rule ;

especially as every thing which relates to it, in this point of view, has already been mentioned under other rules. See Rule v. Note 11 : and Rule xxi. Note 9.

It may not, however, be improper to observe, in addition to what we formerly mentioned respecting the nature of this part of speech, that the genuine Interjection, which is always expressive of some strong sensation, does not owe its characteristic expression to the arbitrary form of articulation; but derives its force from the tone of voice and modification of countenance and gesture. These tones and gestures consequently express the same meaning, or nearly the same, independently of any necessary relation to the articulation which they may assume; and they are therefore universally understood.

DIRECTIONS FOR PARSING.

As we have finished the explanation of the different parts of speech, and the rules for forming them into sentences, it is now proper to give some examples of the manner in which the learners should be exercised, in order to prove their knowledge, and to render it familiar to them. This is called parsing. The nature of the subject, as well as the adaptation of it to learners, requires that it should be divided into two parts ; viz. parsing, as it respects etymology alone ; and parsing, as it respects both etymology and syntax.*

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Section 1.

Specimen of Etymological Parsing:

“ Virtue epnobles us."

Virtue is a common substantive of the neuter gender, the third person, the singular number, and in the nominative case. (Decline the noun.) Ennobles is a regular verb active, indicative mood, present tense, and the third person singular. (Repeat the present tense, the imperfect tense, and the perfect participle.)Us is a personal pronoun, of the first person plural, and in the objective case. (Decline the pronoun.)

* See Vol. ii. part 1. Exercises in Parsing. Sec. 9. The note.
* The learner should occasionally repeat all the moods and tenses of the verb.
Vol. I.

Ff

6 Goodness will be rewarded."

Goodness is a common substantive, of the neuter gender, the third person, the singular number, and in the nominative case (Decline it.) Will be rewarded is a regular verb, in the passive voice, the indicative mood, the first future tense, and the third person singular. (Repeat the present tense, the imperfect tense, and the perfect participle.)

“Strive to improve."

Strive is an irregular verb neuter, in the imperative mood, and of the second person singular. (Repeat the present tense, &c.) To improve is a regular verb neuter, and in the infinitive mood. (Repeat the present tense, &c.)

“ Time flies, O! how swiftly."

Time is a common substantive, of the neuter gender, the third person, the singular number, and in the nominative case. (Decline the noun.) Flies is an irregular verb neuter, the indicative mood, present tense, and the third person singular. (Repeat the present tense, &c.) 0! is an interjection. How and swiftly are adverbs.

“Gratitude is a delightful emotion."

Gratitude is a common substantive, of the neuter gender, the third person, the singular number, and in the nominative case. (Decline it.) Is is an irregular verb neuter, indicative mood, present tense, and the third person singular. (Repeat the present tense, fc.) A is the indefinite article. Delightful is an adjective in the positive state. (Repeat the degrees of comparison.) Emotion is a common substantive of the neuter gender, the third person, the singular number, and in the nominative case. (Decline it.)

“ They who forgive, act nobly."

They is a personal pronoun, of the third person, thc plural number, and in the nominative case. (Decline it.) Who is a relative pronoun, and in the nominative case. (Decline it.) Forgive is an irregular verb active, indicative mood, present tense, and the third person plural. (Repeat the present tense, &c.) Act is a regular verb active, indicative mood, present tense, and the third person plural. (Repeat, &c.) Nobly is an adverb of quality. (Repeat the degrees of comparison.)

By living temperately, our health is promoted.” By is a preposition. Living is the present participle of the regular neuter verb “to live." (Repeat the participle.) Temperately is an adverb of quality. Our is an adjective pronoun of the possessive kind. (Decline it.) Health is a common substantive, of the neuter gender, the third person, the singular number, and in the nominative case. (Decline it.) Is promoted is a regular verb passive, indicative mood, present tense, and the third person singular. (Repeat, &c.)

“We should be kind to them, who are unkind to us."

We is a personal pronoun, of the first person, the plural number, and in the nominative case. (Decline it.) Should be is an ingegular verb neuter, in the potential mood, the imperfect tense, and the first person plural. (Repeat the present tense, &c.) Kind is an adjective, in the positive state. (Repeat the degrees of comparison.) To is a preposition. Them is a personal pronoun, of the third person, the plural number, and in the objective case. (Decline it.) Who is a relative pronoun, and in the nominative case. (Decline it.) Are is an

( irregular verb neuter, indicative mood, present tense, and the third person plural. (Repeat, &c.) Unkind is an adjective in the positive state. (Repeat the degrees of comparison.) To is a preposition. Us is a personal pronoun, of the first person, the plural number, and in the objective case. (Decline it.)

SECTION 2.

Specimens of Syntactical Parsing.

“ Vice produces misery." Vice is a common substantive, of the neuter gender, the third person, the singular number, and in the nominative case. Produces is a regular verb active, indicative mood, present tense, the third person singular, agreeing with its nominative “vice,” according to RULE 1. which says: (here repeat the rule.) Misery is a common substantive, of the neuter gender, the third person, the singular number, and the objective case, governed by the active verb “produces,” according to RULE XI. which says, &c.

“Peace and joy are virtue's crown.” Peace is a common substantive. (Repeat the gender, person,

. number, and case.) And is a copulative conjunction. Joy is a

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