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In a sentence, the subject and the verb, or either of them, may be accompanied with several adjuncts : as, the object, the end, the circumstance of time, place, manner, and the like: and the subject or verb may be either immediately connected with them, or mediately; that is, by being connected with something which is connected with some other, and so on, as, “The mind, unoccupied with useful knowledge, becomes a magazine of trifles and follies."

Members of sentences may be divided into simple and compound members. See page 141.

CHAPTER I.

OF THE COMMA.

The Comma usually separates those parts of a sentence, which, though very closely connected in sense and construction, require a pause between them.

RULE I.

See Vol. ii. Part 4. Exercises. Chap. 1. Rule 1.

With respect to a simple sentence, the several words of which it consists have so near a relation to each other, that, in general, no points are requisite, except a full stop at the end of it: as, " The fear of the Lord' is the beginning of

“ wisdom." 66

Every part of matter swarms with living creatures."

A simple sentence, however, when it is a long one, and the nominative case is accompanied with inseparable adjuncts, may admit of a pause immediately before the verb: as, “The good taste of the present age, has not allowed us to neglect the cultivation of the English language.” “To be totally indifferent to praise or censure, is a real defect in character."

RULE II.

See Vol. ii. Part. 4. Exercises. Chap. 1. Rule 2.

When the connexion of the different parts of a simple sentence, is interrupted by an imperfect phrase, a comma is usually introduced before the beginning, and at the end of this phrase: as, “I remember, with gratitude, bis goodness to me:" “ His work is, in many respects, very imperfect. It is, therefore, not much approved.” But when these interruptions are slight and unimportant, the comma is better omitted : as, “Flattery is certuinly pernicious ;"'

" There is surely a pleasure in beneficence.

In the generality of compound sentences, there is frequent occasion for commas. This will appear from the following rules; some of which apply to simple, as well as to compound sentences.

RULE III.

See Vol. üi. Part 4. Exercises. Chap. 1. Rule 3.

When two or more nouns occur in the same construction, they are parted by a comma: as, “Reason, virtue, answer one great aim :" "The husband, wife and cbildren, suffered extremely:""* “ They took away their furniture, clotbes, and stock in trade:" "He is alternately supported by his father, his uncle, and his elder brother."

From this rule there is mostly an exception, with regard to two nouns closely connected by a conjunction : as, “Virtue and vice form a strong contrast to each other;' “ Libertines call religion bigotry or superstition;" “ There is a natural difference between merit and demerit, virtue and vice, wisdom and folly.” But if the parts connected are not short, a comma may be inserted, though the conjunction is expressed: as, “Romances may be said to be miserable rhapsodies, or dangerous incentives to evil;" “ Intemperance destroys the strength of our bodies, and the vigour of our minds."

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Rule IV.

See Vol. ii. Part 4. Exercises. Chap. 1. Rule 4.

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Two or more adjectives belonging to the same substantive, are likewise separated by commas: as, “Plain, honest truth, wants no artificial covering ;" “ David was a brave, wise, and pious man;" “ A woman, gentle, sensible, well educated, and religious ;' “ The most innocent pleasures are the sweetest, the most rational, the most affecting, and the most lasting."

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As a considerable pause in pronunciation, is necessary between the last noun and the verb, a comma should be inserted to denote it. But as no pause is allowed between the last adjective and the noun, under Rule IV. the comma is there properly omitted.

See WALKER'S Elements of Elocution,

But two adjectives, immediately connected by a conjunction, are not separated by a comma: as, “ True worth is modest and refired;" “ Truth is fair and artless, simple and sincere, uniform and consistent.” “We must be wise or foolish; there is no medium."

Rule V.

See Vol. ü. Part 4. Exercises. Chap. 1. Rule 5.

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Two or more verbs, having the same nominative case, and immediately following one another, are also separated by commas: as, “Virtue supports in adversity, moderates in prosperity;" “In a letter, we may advise, exhort, comfort, request, and discuss."

Two verbs immediately connected by a conjunction, are an exception to the above rule: as, "The study of natural his

, tory expands and elevates the mind;" “Whether we eat or drink, labour or sleep, we should be moderate.”

Two or more participles are subject to a similar rule, and exception: as, “ A man, fearing, serving, and loving his Creator;" ;,5 " He was happy in being loved, esteemed, and respect

By being admired and flattered, we are often corrupted."

ed;" 66

RULE VI.

See Vol. ii. Part 4. Exercises. Chap. 1. Rule 6.

Two or more adverbs immediately succeeding one another, must be separated by commas: as, “We are fearfully, wonderfully framed ;" " Success generally depends on acting prudently, steadily, and vigorously, in what we undertake."

But when two adverbs are joined by a conjunction, they are not parted by the comma: as, “Some men sin deliberately and presumptuously;" “ There is no middle state; we must live virtuously or viciously.”

RULE VII.

See Vol. ii. Part 4. Exercises. Chap. 1. Rule 7.

When participles are followed by something that depends on them, they are generally separated from the rest of the sentence by a comma : as, "The king, approving the plan, put it in execution;" “ His talents, formed for great enterprises, could not fail of rendering him conspicuous;" “ All mankind compose one family, assembled under the eye of one common Father."

Rule VIII.

See Vol. ii. Part. 4. Exercises. Chap. 1. Rule 8.

When a conjunction is divided by a phrase or sentence, from the verb to which it belongs, such intervening phrase has usually a comma at each extremity : as, “ They set out early, and, before the close of the day, arrived at the destined place."

Rule IX.

See Vol. ii. Part. 4. Exercises. Chap. 1. Rule 9.

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EXPRESSIONs in a direct address, are separated from the rest of the sentence by commas: as, My son, give me thy heart;" “I am obliged to you, my friends, for your many favours."

RULE X.

See Vol. ii. Part. 4. Exercises. Chap. 1. Rule 10.

The case or nominative absolute, and the infinitive mood absolute, are separated by commas from the body of the sentence: as, “His father dying, he succeeded to the estate ;"

At length, their ministry performed, and race well run, they left the world in peace;" « To confess the truth, I was much in fault."

Rule XI.

See Vol. ii. Part 4. Exercises. Chap. 1. Rule 11.

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Nouns in apposition, that is, nouns added to other nouns in the same case, by way of explication or illustration, when accompanied with adjuncts, are set off by commas: as, “ Paul, the apostle of the Gentiles, was eminent for bis zeal and knowledge;" “ The butterfly, child of the summer, flutters in the sun."

But if such nouns are single, or only form a proper name, they are not divided : as, “ Paul the apostle ;" * The emperor Antoninus wrote an excellent book."

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RULE XII.

See Vol. ii. Part 4. Exercises. Chap. 1. Rule 12.

Simple members of sentences connected by comparatives are, for the most part, distinguished by a comma : as, “ As the heart panteth after the water brooks, so doth my soul pant after thee;" “ Better is a dinner of herbs with love, than a

a stalled ox and hatred with it."

If the members in comparative sentences are short, the comma is, in general, better omitted : as, “ How much better is it to get wisdom than gold !” “Mankind act oftener from caprice than reason."

Rule XIII.

See Vol, ü. Part 4. Exercises. Chap. 1. Rule 13.

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When words are placed in opposition to each other, or with some marked variety, they require to be distinguished by a comma: as,

“ Tho' deep, yet clear; tho' gentle, yet not dull

“Strong, without rage ; without o'erflowing, full. “Good men, in this frail, imperfect state, are often found, not only in union with, but in opposition to, the views and conduct of one another."

Sometimes, when the word with which the last preposition agrees, is single, it is better to omit the comma before it: as, “Many states were in alliance with, and under the protection of Rome.”

The same rule and restriction must be applied, when two or more nouns refer to the same preposition: as, composed, both under the threatening, and at the approach of a cruel and lingering death ;'? “ He was not only the king, but the father of his people.”

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RULE XIV.

See Vol. ii. Part 4. Exercises. Chap. 1. Rule 14.

A remarkable expression, or a short observation, somewhat in the manner of a quotation, may be properly marked with a

as, “ It hurts a man's pride to say, I do not know;" “Plutarcb calls lying, the vice of slaves."

comma :

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