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properly say, “ An acquaintance of Peter's ;"“A soldier of the king's.”_See Syntax, Rule x. Note 6.

The possessives under consideration, like other parts of grammar, may indeed have some properties peculiar to themselves; and may not, in their present form, be readily accommodated to every circumstance belonging to the possessive cases of nouns : but they should not, on this slight pretence, be dispossessed of the right and privilege, which, from time immemorial, they have enjoyed.


Of the Relative Pronouns.

Relative Pronouns are such as relate, in general, to some word or phrase going before, which is thence called the antecedent: they are, who, which, and that: as, “ The man is happy who lives virtuously."*

What is a kind of compound relative, including both the antecedent and the relative, and is equivalent to that which : as, “ This is what I wanted ;" that is to say, the thing which I wanted.”

Who is applied to persons, which to animals and inanimate things; as, “ He is a friend, who is faithful in adversity;": " The bird, which sung so sweetly,

“ is flown;" “ This is the tree, which produces no fruit."

That, as a relative, is often used to prevent the too frequent repetition of who and which® It is applied to both persons and things ; as, “ He that acts wisely deserves praise;" “ Modesty is a quality that highly adorns a woman." Who is of both numbers, and is thus declined:

Singular and Plural.





* The relative pronoun, when used interrogatively, relates to a word or phrase, whicb is not antecedent, but subsequent, to the relative. See note under tbe vi. Rule of Syntax


Which, that, and what, are likewise of both numbers, but they do not vary their termination; except that whose is sometimes used as the possessive case of which : as, “Is there any other doctrine whose followers are punished ?":

5. And the fruit
Of that forbidden tree, whose mortal taste
Brought death.”

Y"Pure the joy without allay,
Whose very rapture is tranquillity."
“ The lights and shades, whose well accorded strife

Gives all the strength and colour of our life.”. " This is one of the clearest characteristics of its being a religion whose origin is divine.”

By the use of this license, one word is substituted for three: as, Philosophy, whose end is to instruct us in the knowledge of nature,” for, “ Philosophy, the end of which is to instruct




us,” &c.



Who, which, and what, bave sometimes the words soerer and ever annexed to them : as, “ whosoever or whoever, whichsoever, or whichever, whatsoever or whatever :" but they are seldom used in modern style, except whoever and whatever.

The word that is sometimes a relative, sometimes a demonstrative pronoun, and sometimes a conjunction. It is a relative when it may be turned into who or which without destroying the sense : as, “ They that (who) reprove us, may be our best friends ;” “From every thing that (which) you see, derive instruction.” It is a demonstrative pronoun when it is followed immediately by a substantive, to which it is either joined, or refers, and which it limits or qualifies : as, That boy is industrious ;"" That belongs to me;" meaning, that book, that desk, &c. It is a conjunction, when it joins sentences together, and cannot be turned into who or which, without destroying the sense : as, “ Take care that every day be well employed.” “I hope he will believe that I have not acted improperly."

Who, which, and what, are called Interrogatives, when they are used in asking questions: as, “Who is he?" “ Which is

? the book ??! “ What are you doing ?"

Whether was formerly made use of to signify interrogation: as, Whether of these shall I choose ?" but it is now seldom used, the interrogative which being substituted for it. grammarians think that the use of it should be revived, as, like either and neither it points to the dual number; and would contribute to render our expressions concise and definite.

Some writers have classed the interrogatives as a separate kind of pronouns: but they are too nearly related to the relative pronouns, both in nature and form, to render such a division proper. They do not, in fact, lose the character of relatives, when they become interrogatives. The only difference is, that without an interrogation, the relatives have reference to a subject which is antecedent, definite, and known; with an interrogation, to a subject which is subsequent, indefinite and unknown, and which it is expected that the answer should express and ascertain.


Of the Adjective Pronouns.


ADJECTIVE Pronouns are of a mixed nature, participating the properties both of pronouns and adjectives.

The adjective pronouns may be subdivided into four sorts : namely, the possessive, the distributive, the demonstrative, and the indefinite.

1. The possessive are those which relate to possession or property. There are seven of them; viz. my, thy, his, her, our, your, their.

Mine, and thine, instead of my and thy, were formerly used before a substantive, or adjective, beginning with a vowel, or a silent h: as, “ Blot out all mine iniquities."

The pronouns, his, mine, thine, have the same form, whether they are possessive pronouns, or the possessive cases of their respective personal pronouns. See Syntax, Rule x.

A few examples will probably assist the learner, to distinguish the possessive pronouns from the genitive cases of their correspondent personal pronouns.

The following sentences exemplify the possessive pronouns. -“ My lesson is finished ; Thy books are defaced ; He loves his studies ; She performs her duty ; We own our faults ; Your situation is distressing; I admire their virtues."

The following are examples of the possessive cases of the personal pronouns.“ This desk is mine; the other is thine ; These trinkets are his ; those are hers; This house is ours, and that is yours ; Theirs is very commodious."

Some grammarians consider its as a possessive pronoun. The two words own and self, are used in conjunction with


pronouns. Own is added to possessives, both singular and plural : as, “ My own hand, our own house." It is emphatical, and implies a silent contrariety or opposition: as, “ I live in my own house,” that is, “ not in a bired house." Self is added to possessives: as, myself, yourselves : and sometimes to personal pronouns: as, himself, itself, themselves. It then, like own, expresses emphasis and opposition: as, “ I did this ,

, myself," that is, “not another;" or it forms a reciprocal pronoun: as, “ We hurt ourselves by vain rage.”

Himself, themselves, are now used in the nominative case, instead of hisself, theirselves : as, “ He came himself;" " He himself shall do this ;" “ They performed it themselves.”

2. The distributive are those which denote the persons or things that make up a number, as taken separately and singly. They are each, every, either : as, “ Each of his brothers is in a favourable situation;" 6 Every man must account for himself;” “I have not seen either of them."

Each, relates to two or more persons or things, and signifies, either of the two, or every one of any number taken separately.

Every relates to several persons or things, and signifies each one of them all taken separately. This pronoun was formerly used apart from its noun; but it is now constantly annexed to it, except in legal proceedings : as, in the phrase, “ all and

Either relates to two persons or things taken separately, and signifies, the one or the other. To say, “ Either of the three,” is therefore improper. It should be," any of the three.”

" Neither imports “ not either :" that is, not one nor the other: as, “ Neither of my friends was there." If more than two are alluded to, it should be, “ None of my friends was there."

every of them."

3. The demonstrative are those, which precisely point out the subjects to which they relate: this and that, these, and those, are of this class : as, “ This is true charity; that is only its image.”

This refers to the nearest person or thing, and that to the most distant: as, “ This man is more intelligent than that." This indicates the latter, or last mentioned ; that, the former, or first mentioned : as, “ Both wealth and poverty are temptations ; that tends to excite pride, this, discontent.”

The words former and latter may, at the first view, appear to have the nature of denonstrative pronouns ; as in the following example : “ It was happy for the state, that Fabius continued in the command with Minucius : the former's phlegm was a check upon the latter's vivacity.” But these words are to be considered as adjectives; and, in the example just given, as adjectives substantively used.

4. The indefinite are those, which express their subjects in an indefinite or general manner. The following are of this kind : some, other, any, one, all, such, &c.

Of these pronouns, only the words one and other are varied. One has a possessive case, which it forms in the same manner as substantives : as, one, one's. This word has a general signification, meaning people at large ; and sometimes also a peculiar reference to the person who is speaking: as, “ One ought to pity the distresses of mankind."" One is apt to love one's self." This word is often used, by good writers, in the plural number: as, “ The great ones of the world ;"""" The boy wounded the old bird, and stole the young ones :" “ My wife and the little ones are in good health."

Other is declined in the following manner :

Nom. Other.

Poss. Other's.

Obj. Other.

Others. The plural others is only used when apart from the noun to which it refers, whether expressed or understood: as, “When you have perused these papers I will send you the others." “ He pleases some, but he disgusts others." When this pronoun is joined to nouns, either singular or plural, it has no variation : as, “ the other man," "the other men."

The following phrases may serve to exemplify the indefinite pronouns. “ Some of you are wise and good ; " " A few of them were idle, the others industrious ;" “ Neither is there


that is unexceptionable ;" “ One ought to know one's own mind;") “ They were all present;">

;"9 “ Šuch is the state of man, that he is never at rest ;" Some are happy, while others are miserable.”

The word another is composed of the indefinite article prefixed to the word other.

None is used in both numbers : as, None is so deaf as he that will not hear;" “ None of those are equal to these." It seems originally to have signified, according to its derivation, not one, and therefore to have had no plural; but there is good Vou. I.


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