The Penal System: An Introduction
Now fully revised, this highly successful textbook provides a clear and comprehensive introduction to the penal system in England and Wales.
Michael Cavadino and James Dignan examine all aspects of the penal process, including details of the recent dramatic developments which have made the punishment of offenders and the escalating `penal crisis' one of the most hotly debated issues of the day. They also outline the theories which purport to justify and explain the practice of punishment and consider their value in helping us understand the penal system.
The Second Edition presents a stimulating account of the current crisis. The authors argue that the penal system not only suffers from severe practical pr
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The deterrence mechanism can be divided into two categories: individual
deterrence and general deterrence. Individual deterrence occurs when someone
commits a crime, is punished for it, and finds the punishment so unpleasant or ...
Indeed, there is some research which indicates - quite contrary to what the theory
of individual deterrence suggests - that offenders who suffer more severe
penalties are more (not less) likely to re-offend (Brody, 1976: 14-16; West, 1982:
This does not mean that deterrence never works, but that its effects are limited
and easy to overestimate. There are several reasons for this. First, most people
most of the time obey the law out of moral considerations rather than for selfish ...
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Crisis? What Crisis?
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