Appetite and Body Weight: Integrative Systems and the Development of Anti-Obesity Drugs

Front Cover
Tim Kirkham, Steven J Cooper
Elsevier, Apr 28, 2011 - Science - 384 pages

There is now enough basic work to sketch out the principal systems at all levels of the brain, from prefrontal cortex to lower brainstem, which are orchestrated to provide control of food selection, preference and consumption. At the same time, the complex interplay between central systems and signals generated from peripheral systems include the gut, liver and fat stores, as well as the interactions with the neuroendocrine system can be described in some detail. A continuing theme throughout the book is that the functional analysis of appetite and food intake cannot be limited to a single focus, e.g. hypothalamic neuropeptides and their interactions, but must be based on a fully integrated view of the several contributing systems.

Appetite and Body Weight: Integrative Systems and the Development of Anti-Obesity Drugs provides an expert guide to the neural, neurochemical, autonomic and endocrine interrelations which underpin appetite and the controls of food intake and body weight. The book covers many of the neurochemical entities that are currently under investigation, including: neuropeptides, leptin, insulin, monoamines and endogenous cannabinoids in relation to appetite and body-weight control. In addition to the neuroscience analysis, there are also chapters that provide an expert guide to some of the key psychological concepts that the researchers believe are essential in trying to understand the phenomena under investigation. The volume will also serve as an authoritative guide to the current emphasis on the development of novel, efficacious anti-obesity medication.

  • Provides an integrative view of the many systems involved in appetite how they interact to effect food intake (i.e. the brain, endocrine, gut, liver etc.)
  • Considers psychological aspects such as incentive, preference, liking and palatability, and sets these concepts in their behavioural, pharmacological and neural contexts
  • Examines the development of novel anti-obesity drugs, drawing on experience of pharmacological development work, pre-clinical tests for anti-obesity efficacy, and clinical trials of candidate anti-obesity compounds

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Contents

Introduction and Overview
1
Cortical Systems Involved in Appetite and Food Consumption
5
The Nucleus Accumbens Shell as a Model of Integrative Subcortical Forebrain Systems Regulating Food Intake
27
Hypothalamic Neuropeptides and Feeding Regulation
67
BrainstemHypothalamic Neuropeptides and the Regulation of Feeding
99
The GutBrain Axis in the Control of Eating
143
Integration of Peripheral Adiposity Signals and Psychological Controls of Appetite
167
Brain Reward Systems for Food Incentives and Hedonics in Normal Appetite and Eating Disorders
191
The Role of Palatability in Control of Human Appetite Implications for Understanding and Treating Obesity
247
Learned Influences on Appetite Food Choice and Intake Evidence in Human Beings
271
Gene Environment Interactions and the Origin of the Modern Obesity Epidemic A Novel Nonadaptive Drift Scenario
301
Preclinical Developments in Antiobesity Drugs
323
Clinical Investigations of Antiobesity Drugs
337
Index
357
Color Plates
373
Copyright

Pharmacology of Food Taste and Learned Flavor Preferences
217

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Page 217 - Not one man in a billion, when taking his dinner, ever thinks of utility. He eats because the food tastes good and makes him want more. If you ask him why he should want to eat more of what tastes like that, instead of revering you as a philosopher he will probably laugh at you for a fool. The connection between the savory sensation and the act it awakens is for him absolute and selbstverstdndlich, an ' a priori synthesis ' of the most perfect sort, needing no proof but its own evidence.
Page 161 - Cummings DE, Purnell JQ, Frayo RS, Schmidova K, Wisse BE, Weigle DS: A preprandial rise in plasma ghrelin levels suggests a role in meal initiation in humans.
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Page 124 - Batterham, RL, Cowley, MA, Small, CJ, Herzog, H., Cohen, MA, Dakin, CL, Wren, AM, Brynes, AE, Low, MJ, Ghatei, MA, Cone, RD and Bloom, SR (2002) Gut hormone PYY(3-36) physiologically inhibits food intake.
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Page 335 - Effects of the cannabinoid- 1 receptor blocker rimonabant on weight reduction and cardiovascular risk factors in overweight patients: 1-year experience from the RIO-Europe study. Lancet 2005;365:1389-1397.
Page 164 - McLatchie, LM, Fraser, NJ, Main, MJ, Wise, A., Brown, J., Thompson, N., Solari, R., Lee, MG, and Foord, SM (1998).

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