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ordained, and consecrated.” He also ruled that a personal reign of the Redeemer on earth was incompatable with the sentence in the creed, “from thence He shall come to judge both the quick and the dead.” When the judge concluded, the defendant thought that he might have liberty to speak for himself, and began :

“ As to the doctrines

Judge. “You shall not speak anything here, except to the matter-of-fact; that is to say, whether you wrote this book or not.”

Keach. “I desire liberty to speak to the particulars of my indictment, and answer these things that have

J. “You shall not be suffered to give the reasons of your doctrine here, to seduce the king's subjects."

K. “Is my religion so bad, that I may not be allowed to

speak ?"

J. “I know your religion. You are a fifth-monarchy man, and you can preach as well as write books, and you would preach here if I would let you. But I shall take such order as you shall do no more mischief.”

Daunted by this ominous announcement, which, in their ignorance of the law of the case, the prisoner and his friends understood as a threat of capital punishment, Mr Keach said little more in self-defence, and the jury retired to consider their verdict. After an absence of several hours, it appeared that they could not agree; but, by dint of further direction and a good deal of brow-beating from the bench, they were at last brought to give a verdict of “Guilty.” The sentence of the Court was, “ You shall go to jail for a fortnight without bail or mainprise ; and next Saturday stand upon the pillory at Aylesbury in the open market, for the space of two hours, from eleven of the clock to one, with a paper upon your

head with this inscription, · For writing, printing, and publishing a schismatical book, entitled, “ The Child's Instructor; or, a

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New and Easy Primer;" and the next Thursday, to stand in the same manner and for the same time in the market of Winslow, and there your book shall be openly burned before your face by the common hangman, in disgrace of you and your doctrine. And you shall forfeit to the king's majesty the sum of twenty pounds, and shall remain in jail until you find sureties for your good behaviour, and appearance at the next assizes, there to renounce your doctrines, and make such public submission as shall be enjoined you. Take him away, keeper!"

Whatever may be our opinion as to the expediency of handling difficult questions of theology in a "Primer," there can only be one feeling of indignant detestation towards the tyranny which thus assailed “the liberty of prophesying." And even at the time it fell short of its aim. Popular sympathy was with the sufferer. As he stood in the pillory, he said, “I hope the Lord's people will not be discouraged at my suffering. I do account this the greatest honour that ever the Lord was pleased to confer upon me;" and, although he was interrupted by the sheriff coming up in a great rage, and telling him that he should be gagged if he would not be silent, it was evident that John Hampden's fellow-countymen resented this deed of legal despotism. A clergyman who had come to gratify his polemical animosity, began, like the monks at Smithfield in Queen Mary's days, to lecture the prisoner : “You see what your errors have brought you to ;” but he had no sooner begun to speak than some one shouted, remember when you were pulled drunk out of the ditch ?” and another, “ Or that time that you were found under the haycock ?” till the poor parson was glad to retreat amidst bursts of laughter and shouts of derision.

In the twenty-eighth year of his age he became the pastor of a Baptist Church in Tooley Street, London, which, on occasion of King Charles's Indulgence, built a commodious place of

• Do you

worship at Horsley-down, and here he ministered until his death in 1704. On some subjects he held peculiar views. For example, influenced by his teaching, the church of which he was minister would admit no one to its membership who had not after baptism received “the laying-on of hands”—a usage for which he urged apostolical precedent, and which found its analogy in the Church of England rite of confirmation. On the other hand, he was successful in bringing many of the Baptist churches to allow a salary to their ministers, which they had hitherto refused in an excessive dread of " hireling shepherds;" and we believe that his was the first Baptist congregation which introduced psalmody as a part of public worship. This last, however, was felt to be a very serious innovation, and Mr Keach and the majority of the church found it needful to proceed very warily. At first it was agreed to sing the praises of God after the dispensation of the Lord's Supper--a measure which was resisted by only two of the brethren, one of whom “soon brought a great reproach upon religion by immoral actions,” and the other some time after turned Quaker. For six years Mr Keach and his people were content with this restricted allowance, and then an act of the Church extended the Indulgence to thanksgiving days. Finally, and after fourteen years further, it was agreed to sing a psalm or hymn every Lord's-day; but even then, so temperate was the majority, and so regardful of others' consciences, that they reserved their musical performance for the close of the service, in order that objectors might leave before the singing began.*

There is only one of Mr Keach's hymn-books with which we are acquainted. As in the case of Bunyan and many others, his verse falls far short of his prose ; and it says a good deal for the seriousness of a congregation, as well as for the primitive condition of its sacred minstrelsy, that it was able to

* Sce the interesting “ History of the English Baptists,” by Thomas Crosby (1738–40), vols. ii. pp. 185–209 ; iii. 143-7; iv. 268-314,



throw devotional feeling into such rhymes as compose “The Feast of Fat Things Full of Marrow.”* Some idea of their style may be formed from the following, on “ Saints the Salt of the Earth :"

If saints, O Lord, do season all

Amongst whom they do live,
Salt all with grace, both great and small;

They may sweet relish give.

And, blessed be Thy glorious name!

In England salt is found;
Some savoury souls who do proclaim

Thy grace, which doth abound.

But, О the want of salt, O Lord !

How few are salted well!
How few are like to salt indeed!

Salt Thou Thy Israel !

Now sing ye saints who are this salt,

And let all seasoned be
With your most holy gracious lives,

Great need of it we see.

The earth will else corrupt and stink;

O salt it well, therefore,
And live to Him that salted you,

And sing for evermore.

By far the most elaborate and important work of our author is his “Key to Open Scripture Metaphors,” in which he has arranged, under separate heads, all the figurative language applied in Scripture to the Godhead, to the Saviour, to the Church of Christ, to the Christian, &c., and has shewn an ingenuity almost excessive, in opening up each allusion and epithet. But although the compiler's fancy often runs riot, the book is so curious and so suggestive, and it contains such abun

* London, 1696.

dance of "good matter,” that for many years it has been in great demand, and, until it was reprinted, a short time ago, it was extremely scarce.

Although suffering by comparison with the peerless “ Pilgrim,” Keach's “Travels of True Godliness, from the beginning of the World to this present Day” is “an apt and pleasant allegory,” which still finds many readers. As more adapted for quotation than “ Scripture Metaphors,” we transcribe one of its shorter chapters,

True Codliness at the Door of Old Age.

Godliness being rejected both by Riches, Poverty, and Youth, resolved to see whether he might not be entertained by a certain decrepid and feeble person called Old Age, concluding within hiunself that it was very probable his dear friend Consideration, whom he had a long time sought for, might lodge in his house ; for, said he, surely Wisdom, though he dwell not with Riches, Poverty, nor Youth, yet doubtless he doth with the aged (Job xxxii. 7): and therefore he made up directly to his door, where he knocked and called a considerable time without any answer ; but at last Old Age inquired who was at his door?

Old Age. Who are you?

Godliness. Your real friend, True Godliness, who would fain have a lodging with you now at last.

Old Age. Godliness, I have heard, I think, of you, but I do not know you. Besides, I am not able to rise


from chair to let you in, I have such a weak and crazy carcase, and so full of pain and aches, that I have enough to do to sustain my own infirmities. Pray come another time, don't trouble me.

Godliness. Alas, Father, you may not live another day; death may seize you before to-morrow morning (Prov. xxvii. 1). Why should you put me off? I was formerly at your door, when you was young, and then you told me you could not open to


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