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language, in which he made an essay for a little while, and then deserted it."

It was as a mathematician that Barrow first became known to the public. His edition of Euclid's “ Elements” appeared at Cambridge in 1655, and was followed in two years by the “Data.” Unlike most editors of Euclid, he has given us the fifteen books of the Elements entire, occasionally substituting demonstrations of his own, or shortening and simplifying those of his author.

In 1654, the illustrious Duport resigned the Greek professorship at Cambridge, and recommended his pupil, Mr Isaac Barrow, for his successor. On this occasion he justified the good opinion of his patron, by a probationary exercise of distinguished merit; but the electors decided in favour of his competitor, Mr Ralph Widdrington. Barrow's friend and contemporary, Abraham Hill, attributes his disappointment to a suspicion on the part of the Parliamentary Commissioners, that he was tainted with Arminian notions; whilst a more recent biographer discovers a likelier reason in Widdrington's relationship to the Speaker of Cromwell's Parliament.

Whatever were the reasons, Barrow lost the Greek professorship, and the disappointment confirmed a purpose of setting out to explore some foreign countries; and, in the month of June 1655, he left the shores of England. In an epistle of Latin hexameters, we have all the details of his voyage, performed-like most poetical voyages—in a crazy vessel, amidst sea-sickness, and retarded by a calm. At Paris he found the exiled court of Charles II., where his father was in attendance, and, like his prince, in poverty. It gratified the generous heart of Barrow, that out of his own slender resources he was able to administer to the wants of his father. The situation of Mr Thomas Barrow gave his son near access to the Court, and favourable opportunities for observing the state of feeling in the high places of France; and in a long Latin epistle to his

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college, dated Feb. 7, 1655 (1656 N. S.), amongst other results of his observation, he gives the following character of the deep politician at that time supreme in the councils of Louis XIV.: “At the head of affairs is one sprung from the land of the giants (Sicily), who, rising from obscurity to the sacerdotal scarlet, presumed to dispute for the chief authority in the state with princes of royal lineage, and aided by their valour, prudence, and popularity-yet triumphed in the unequal contest. Again, battling with adverse fortune, hurled from his eminence, in exile, and declared the public enemy, he contrived to procure his own return, to regain the helm, to check the triumph of his enemies, to convert some of them into instruments of his own, and drive the others off the field. Now that he is replaced in the seat of authority, he seems to occupy it more securely than ever. By matrimonial alliance, he has bound to himself the chief of the nobility; the governors of the provinces wait upon his nod; and he has filled the frontier garrisons with men of his own creating, and who have nothing to hope except from him. The revenues of the realm flow through his coffers; and by him each appointment in the army, the state, the court, the law, is sold and settled. His word is law, his will the rule of duty, his command the decree of fate. Of course, one who managed to emerge from dust and darkness into such a splendour, who could project or execute such purposes, must have genius and great endowments. But these are all debased by abundance of dross. Whilst accounted powerful and fortunate, he has not yet earned the glory of greatness of soul. A want of good faith dims the lustre of good management, and a craving avarice imparts a meanness to all his grand exploits. Nor can he be popular to the last, who is monopolised by such a love of money. This is the engine which will hurl from its place our Marpesian rock-this Delos, ákuntov Tep covoarwhich will upset his fortune, so well founded and so strongly propped. Whilst by every device he scrapes together treasure for himself, along with the gold he pockets the grudges of the people; he is rich in money, but poor in good wishes; and whether his profits be not his loss, time will discover.”

Barrow was gratified to find that Protestantism was viewed with some favour at court. During an interview with the queen, the Archbishop of Toulouse had complained of the progress of heresy in his province, and implored her majesty's assistance in putting down these " seditious innovators.” The queen instantly replied, that she had tried their allegiance, and had found them more faithful subjects than some who charged them with sedition. One of the marshals of France who stood by affirmed the same. And when the king, who happened to come up, learned the subject of conversation, he closed the discussion by saying, that he quite agreed with them, and would take care to perpetuate to his Protestant subjects every immunity secured to them by his predecessors.

When he had passed some months in Paris, he proceeded to Florence, where also he made a lengthened stay. The chief attractions of this city were the library and museum of the Grand Duke. Besides perusing many of the rarer volumes in that noble collection, he seems to have been much interested by the study of 10,000 medals, which formed a cabinet under the charge of Mr Fitton, an English antiquarian patronised by the duke.

From Florence he wished to proceed to Rome, but was deterred by tidings of the plague. He therefore took advantage of an English vessel in the port of Leghorn, bound for the Levant, to prosecute his journey as far as Constantinople. During the voyage, the courage of the ship's company was tested by an Algerine pirate. They were attacked in the Ionian Sea, but gave the corsair so warm a reception, that he was fain to sheer off, and leave them to continue their

voyage. Throughout the engagement Barrow kept on deck, and stood to his gun with the rest of the crew. Talking of this adventure afterwards, Dr Pope asked him, “Why did not you get

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down into the hold, and leave the defence of the ship to those whom it concerned ?” He answered, “It concerned no man more than myself: I would rather have lost my life than have fallen into the hands of these merciless infidels.”

After touching at Smyrna, he arrived at Constantinople in the close of 1657. Barrow's sojourn of twelve months at Constantinople was more than a mere stage in his travels. It was there that he formed his acquaintance with the works of Chrysostom. How inspiring it must have been to read the Homilies of that prince of preachers, in the city where he penned and spoke them twelve centuries before! And Barrow read the whole folio by folio, all the sermons of the great father of pulpit eloquence, and transfused their spirit into his own.

During his residence in Turkey, Barrow was also much occupied in studying the Mohammedan religion. It possessed more theological importance in those days than now; and in systems of divinity it usually occupied a place second only to Popery. In the discourses of Barrow, however, it receives a prominence which it did not usually obtain in the pulpit, and which shews that his mind had been specially arrested by its peculiarities. In his miscellaneous Latin works are an epitome of the Turkish faith, and a very long fragment of a poem, "De religione Turcica.”

* Much earlier than this, Barrow had given a proof not more of great courage than great strength, and more than either, of a highly generous spirit. When a youth, he was on a visit to a friend in the country. Being a very early riser, he had sauntered out into the garden before any of the family bad appeared, when a fierce mastiff, which had been released from his chain for the protection of the premises during the night, attacked him with great fury. He seized the animal by the throat, and contrived to throw him down and lie upon him; and whilst matters were in this situation, his first impulse was to despatch his assailant. However, it struck him that it would be exceedingly unjust to kill even a dog for doing his duty, as he himself had no business to be wandering about before break of day. Accordingly, exerting his voice, he called so loud that some of the household were alarmed, and hastening to his assistance, rescued both the student and the dog from their perilous predicament.

After he had spent more than a year in Turkey, he set out on his journey home. He had no sooner landed in Venice, than the ship which conveyed him took fire, and, with all its cargo, was consumed. From Venice he proceeded to England, passing through Germany and Holland, and arrived at Cambridge some time in 1659, after an absence of four years.

Immediately on his return he procured Episcopal ordination from Bishop Brownrigg. In doing so, he gave another proof of his scrupulous conscientiousness. The statutes of Trinity require that every Fellow shall within a certain time enter into orders, or quit the college. At this period, the statute was frequently violated. Many made the depressed state of Episcopacy a reason for not obtaining ordination, whilst they still continued on the foundation; but Barrow's casuistry determined otherwise.

On the restoration of Charles II., Widdrington resigned the Greek professorship, and without any opposition, Barrow was elected his successor. Shortly afterwards (July 1662) he obtained an appointment still more to his liking. This was the professorship of Geometry in Gresham College, London. It was an auspicious time in the history of the mathematical sciences. It was the era of Hooke and Wallis, of Wren and Collins, and the kindred spirits who founded the Philosophical Society at Cambridge, and the Royal Society in London, Although not one of the original Fellows of the latter, to whom the Royal Charter was granted, Barrow was elected, May 1663, in the first choice made by the council.

In that same year, Mr Lucas founded a professorship of Mathematics at Cambridge. Barrow's friend and patron, Bishop Wilkins, had sufficient interest with the trustees to procure the appointment for him. And he deserved it. Not only had he discharged his obligations to Gresham College to the satisfaction of every one, but he had given a striking display of his rectitude and disinterestedness by declining an offer

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