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the fingular profit of mankind they are the lieutenants of God, in whose fellions God himself doth fit and judge to whom by God is given the sword to the praise and defence of good men, and to punish all open malefactors. To kings, princes, rulers and magiltzates chiefly, and most principally, the conservation and purgation of religion appertains; fo that not only are they appointed for civil policy, but also for maintenance of the true religion, and for suppression of all idolatry and superstition whatsoever.” This doctrine is further afferted and explained in her second book of discipline, Chap. i. X; The doctrine of her Wefiminfter Confeffion of Faith, the WHOLE of which is folemnly efpoufed and engaged to, by every Presbyterian minister and elder in Scotland in his ordination vows, is that “ for their publishing opinions or maintaining practices contrary to the light of nature and the known principles of Christianity, whether concerning faith, worship or conversation, or to the power of godliness, or such erroneous opinions or practices, as either, in their own nature, or in the manner of publishing and maintaining them, are destructive to the external peace, and order, which Christ hath sestablished in the Church, they may be lawfully called to account, and proceeded against by-the power of the civil magistrate," Chap. xx. 4.--that « God, the supreme Lord and King of all the world, hath ordained civil magistrates to be under hiin, over the people, for his own glory and the public good--they ought especially, (in managing their office) to maintain 'PIETY, justice and peace, according to the wholesome laws of each Commona wealth-That the civil magistrate HalHauthority, and it is his duty to take order that unity and peace be preserved in the Church, and that the truth of God be kept pure and entire; that all blafphemies

and heresies be suppressed, all corruptions and abufas in worship and discipline prevented and reformed, and all the ordinances of God duly settled, adminiftred and observed. For the better effecting of which, he hath power to call Synods, to be prefent at them, and to provide that whatsoever is tranfacted in them be according to the mind of God," Chap. xxiii. 1, 2, 3.-" The duties required in the second commandment are—the disapprova ing, detesting, opposing all false worship, and according to each one's place and calling, removing it, and all monuments of idolatry;--The fins for bidden in the second commandment are, all devis. ing, counselling, commanding, using, and any ways approving any religious worship not instituted by God himself, tolerating a false religion." Lar. Cat: Q. 108, 109. These declarations are an authentic explication of the power of the magistrate in maintaining and preserving the true religion, the defence of which is expressly fworn in their folmen covenants with God. If therefore, Sir, you difcredit this doctrine, and plead the toleration of idolatry, blasphemy, herefy, and that magiftrates ought to meddle with nothing in religion, be so honest, as openly to renounce your ordination vows and the Confession of Faith and Catechisms, as well as the national Covenant and Solemn League.

To illustrate the above doctrine of our excellent Standards, it is proper to observe,

1. God alone is the necessarily existent, and absolutely independent Creator and preserver, and therefore original and supreme proprietor and gover. nor of all things in heaven or earth, Exod. iii. 4. Gen. i. Psal. civ. and xxiv. 1, 2. xxxiii. 6. Ixxxii 18. xlvii. 2, 75 9. Ezek. i. 11. Col. i. 16,–18. Dan.

iv. 34, 35

2. All right, civil, natural, or fpiritualy whether

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of conscience, or of perfons, or of husbands, parents, masters, magistrates, ministers, or even of Christ as mediator, muft therefore wholly originate from God alone, Psalm cxv. 16. Rom. xi. 36. Heb. ii. 10. A&ts. X. 25, 28. 2 Cor. v. 18. Pfal. lxxv. 7. Dan. ii. 21. iv. 32, 35. Mat. xxviii. 18. xi. 27. John V. 35. To suppose any real right or being whatsocver, uroriginating from him, is to give up with the necessary existence of God, and to plunge into the very depths of Atheism.

3. All right and authority of conscience, persons, husbands, parents, magistrates, minifters, or even of Christ as mediator, being wholly derived from God, ought, neceffarily ought, wholly to be improvçd, or exercised in his name, in conformity and som bordination to his law, as the supreme rule, and in order to promote his declarative glory as the chief end of it, Prov. xvi. 4. Rom. xi. 36. 1 Pet. iv. 11. I Cor. *. 31. John v. 30. viii. 29. vii. 18. Eph. iii. 21.

4. No right or authority derived from God can therefore be lawfully improven or exercised, in protecting, encouraging, allowing or commanding any thing which God himself, on account of his infinite perfection in holiness, justice, goodness and truth, cannot command; or in discouraging, disallowing, or prohibiting any thing which God in his law requires. It is absurd to suppose it, that God can give men a power which he hath not himself; and thocking blasphemy to suppose him capable of giving men a right and authority to contemn or counteract his own law as their rule, or his. own'glory as their chief end, in every thing they do, 2 Tim. ii. 13: Hab. i. 12, 13. Exod. xv. 11. Deut. xxxii. 4: Zeph. m. 5. James'i. 13.

5. All the diversified forms of right and authority in conscience, husbands, parents, masters, magi. Itrates, ministers, and even in Christ as mediator,

being derived from the fame God of infinite wisdom and order, each of them may, and ought to be whole ly exercised within its proper department, and in a manner answerable to its nature, and never in the way of invading the place or interrupting the exercise of any other right or authority. No right of conscience can be exercised to the interruption of the due exercise of marital, parental, magisterial, magiftratical, ministerial, or Christ's mediatorial authori. ty; nor, can any regular exercise of these powers interrupt the due exercise of the power of conscience, or of one another, 1 Cor. xiv. 33, 40. vii. 20, 24.

6. All these different forms of power and authority being derived from the fame God, may have the same things for their object, but viewed in different re{pects. The same man may be subject to the power of his conscience as he is arational creaturè,to the power of parents as a child, subject to the power of masters as a servant, --subject to the power of magiftrates as a member of the Commonwealth, subject to the power of Church-rulers as a member of an organized visible Church,--subject to the me diatorial power of Christ, as a member of his mystic cal body, or an agent for promoting the welfare of it. --The same good work of piety or virtue may, or ought to be required by conscience, by parents, mafters, magistrates, minifters, and even by Christ as mediator, in different respects, as calculated to promote the welfare of the persons, families, nations, and Churches concerned, in subordination to the glory of God as their respective proprietor and superior. The performance of the same good work may be encouraged by rewards from all these different powers, answerable to their respective forms.-The same vices of idolatry, blafphemy, 'calumnny, treason, theft, murder, &c. as in different respects hurtful to persons, families, civil societies, and Churches, may, and ought to be prohibited by ail these different powers, and resented by each, as hurtful to itself, as subordinated to God, in a manner answerable to its particular nature and department,

by conscience with stinging rebukes ---by parents with correction, disinheritng; or the like,-by malters with frowns, ftripes, abridgment of wages, or the like,mby magistrates with public dishonour, fining, imprisonment, or death, --by Church-rulers with ecclefiaftical rebuke, excommunicaton,-by Christ with temporal, fpiritual or eternal judgment, Acts xxiv. 16. Josh. xxiv. 15. Psal. ci. Mat. v. vi. vii. &c. .

7. All these powers of conscience, husbands, parents, masters, magiftrates, Church-rulers, and of Christ as mediator, proceeding from an infinitely wise, powerful and good God, are each of them, in its own place, altogether sufficient to gain its own end. Nevertheless, it mightily tends to the advantage of each, that all of them be rightly exercised at once, and to the hurt of all the reit, if any of them be not. If conscience act faithfully, this promotes: the regular and comfortable exercise of the power of husbands, parents, masters, magistrates or minie. fters, &c. And it is to the advantage of conscience, if they regularly exercise their power, and especially if Christ exercise his, in a remarkable manner. It is much to the advantage of Church and State, if husbands, parents, and masters, faithfully exercise their power in their respective departments; and much to their hurt, if they do not. If the rulers : in Church and State, faithfully discharge their trust, it will tend much to promote the welfare of families. The- -- more faithfully ministers labour in winning souls to Chrift, and teaching men to live soberly, righteously and godly in view of Christ's second coming, the more easy will the work of magistrates,

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