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directing them to judge justly, impartially' and pru.. dently, and to punish murderers, adulterers, thieves, robbers, &c. be difcarded as typical? Must the weekly Sabbath, public falts and thanksgivings be laid aside as typical,- a mere sign between God and the Israelites? Must the ten commandments, and all the explications of them in the Old Testament be discarded, as published in a typical manner, and to a typical people, and used as the principal part of their rule of government in the Jewith Theocracy?

4. As the Jewish Church was a REAL Church, and not MERELY TYPICAL, fo their State was a REAL Commonwealth or kingdom, and not MERELY

Whatever therefore pertained to it, as a real Commonwealth, is imitable in any other.

5. The Jewish Church and State were as REALLY DIS TINCT,

as the Church and State are now; though I do not fay precisely in the same manner.

(1.) They differed in refpe&t of REGULATING Laws. The ceremonial law directed the Jewilh Church. The judicial directed the affairs of their State.

(2.) They differed in their respective acrs. The Jews worshipped God, offered facrifices, and res ceived facraments, not as members of that State, but as members of that Church. They punished evit doers by fines, imprisonment, banishment, burning, stoning, and hanging; and fought' with enemies, &c. not as a Church, but as a State.

(3.) They differed in respect of CONTROVERSIES. To the Church pertained the matters of the Lord, and a judging of leprofies, and between statutes and judgments. To the State belonged the matters of the king, and to judge between blood and blood, 2 Chron. xix. 10, 11. Deut. xvii. 8. . (4.) They differed in respect of officers. The priests were the only stated officers in the Church

And even

and prophets a kind of occafional ones. Elders, Judges and Kings were governors in the State. The priets might not take the civil sword out of the hand of the magistrates; nor the magiftrates offer facrifices, burn incenfe, or otherwise execute the priest's office. (5-) They differed in respect of CONTINUANCE. When the Jewish civil power was taken away by the komans, the conftitution of their Church remained, in the days of our Saviour's debasement. pow the Jews pretend to be a Church, but not to be a State.

(6.) They differed in respect of VARIATION. The constitution of their Church renained much the fame under Mofes, Joshua, the Judges, the Kings, and after the captivity. But the form of the State underwent great alterations.

(7.) They differed in respect of MEMBERS. Proa felytes of the covenant were complete members of the Jewish Church; but had not the same dignities or marriages allowed them in the State, as the natural Israelites. Nor had the proselytes of the gate any Church privileges, though they had some civil

ones. :

21. (8.) They were governed by different COURTS. The Church had her courts of the Synagouge, and her ecclefiaftical Sanhedrin.- The State had her courts of the gate, & c. and her civil Sanhedrin; though often fome Levites were judges in both, as our ruling elders in the Church, may, at the same, time, be civil judges, Exod. xxiv. 1, Deut, xvi. 8

--12: 1 Chron. xxxiii. 4. &, xxvia 30, 32. 2 Chron. xix. 8, 10, 11. Jer. xxvi. 8-11; 16. xviii. 18. with Deut. xvii. 10, 11, 12. Ezek. vii. 26. 2 Kings vi. 32. Zech. vii.

Pfal.cvii. 32.

Ezek. xiii. 9. Mat. ii. 4. xvi. 21. xxi. 23. xxvi, 57, 59. xxvii. 1, 12. Luke xxii. 66. Acts iv. 5. Some Jewith Rab

Psal i. s.

bins expressly distinguish between their judges and their Church elders in the same places.

(9.) They differed in their CENSURE of offenders. In the Church, offenders were fufpended from facred fellowship, by a casting out of the Synagogue, or a cutting off from God's people or congregation. Jolin ix. 22. & *11.742. Exod. xii. 15, 19. Num. xix. 13, 20, Lev. xxii. 3. with Gen. iv. 14.-Lev. vii, 20, 21. with v. 2.- - Cor.' v. 6, 7, 8, 13. with Exod. xii. 15, 19. Gen, xvii. 14. with Ads iii.

23: Gen. xxv. 17. In the State, they were cut off by death or outlawry.

(10.). Profane and scandalous perfons were excluded from the Jewith temple-fervice and paflover, while they retained their civil rights in the State, Ezek. xliv. 7, 9. Deut. xxiii. 18. Jer. vii. 9-II. Ezek. xxiii. 38, 39. - 2 Chron. xxiii. 19. with 1 Cor. v. 11. Psal. cxviii. 19, 20: & xv. 1-5. & xxiv. 3, 4. & l. 16-20. Ezek. xxvi. 22, 26. Ezra x. 8, 16, 27. & vi. 21.

6. There was no such difference between the Jewish magiftracy; especially after their rejection of the Tehocracy, under Samuel, 1 Sam. viii. 5, 7, 19. & xii. 12, 17, 19. and the magistracy in Christian countries, as it is often pretended.

(1.) The Jewish magistracy was an ordinance of God, Exod. xviii. Num. xi. Deut. i. xvii. & xvi. 18, 19. Magistracy is still an ordinance of God, to be {ubmitted to for the Lord's fake, Rom. xiii. 1-6.

1 Pet. ii. 14.

(2.) Notwithftanding God's appointment of particular persons to be their kings, the Hebrew nation had the power of electing and admiting them to their office, Sam. Xi xi. xvi. 2 Sam. ii. 4. & v. 3.

Chron. xii. Our magistrates are power's ordained . 15.

* See Gillespy's Aaron's Rod blooming, Part I. Leusden's Philo bogus Hebreo mixtus, P. 338, 339.

of God; Rom. xiii. 1-6. and yet an ordinance of men, i Pet, ii. 13

(3.). God himself was the supreme governour of the Hebrew nation, Deut. xii. 32. Hof. xiii. id. God is still King of nations, Mof High, King of the

wbale earth, Jer. x. 7. Pfalm lxxxii. 18. xlvii. 7. .C(4.) The Ifraelites were God's peculiar kingdom, . 1 Sam. xii. 12. Hof. xiii. 10. Nations which

generally profefs the Christian religion, are the king-, doms of our Lord and of his Chrift, Rev. xi.

(5.) The Jewith magiftrates were deputies and vicegerents of God the Sovereign King, 1 Chron. *xix. 23. 2 Chron. ix 6, 7. Pfal. lxxxii. 1, 6. Magistrates are still powers ordained of God, ministers of God for good, to whom we must be subject for conscience fake, for the Lord's fake, Rom. xiii. 1 -6. 1 Pet. ii. 13. By Chrift kings still reign, and princes decree justice, even all the judges of the earth, Prov. viii. 15, 16. with Eph. i. 22.

(6.) The manifested will of God was the proper statute look of the Jewish civil law, Deut. xvii. The will of God manifefted in the law of nature or revelation is the fupreme standard of all civil laws in the world, in which every human constitution ought to be founded, and by which the whole binding force of it is circumscribed, Aets iv. 19. & v. 29. Psal. ii.

10-12. and hence human laws become an ordinance of God, Rom. xiii. 2.

(7.) The judicial laws of the Hebrew nation, regulated that which pertained to their kings, jndges, warriors, fields, houses, injuries, crimes, punishments, mortgages, marriages, &c. Exod. xxi-xxiii. Deut. xviii. xx. Lev. xviii. xx. Num. xxxvi. xxxviii. &c. Our civil laws regulate the fame things.

(8.) Among the Jews, notorious disobedience to the declared will of God was held rebellion against him, the King of the nation, and to be condignly

punished, as it tended to the good of the State, Heb. ii. 2. and x. 28. Notorious disobedience to the manifested will of God ought to be still held as rebellion against Him, as king of nations, and to be condignly punished, as tends to the welfare of the State,- magistrates being still set up by God to be terrors, revengers, and punishers of evil doers, and bound not to bear the sword in vain, Rom. xiii. 1-5. 1 Pet. ii. 13, 14. Nor hath it been yet proven, That our magistrates, who have the Scriptures, ought to pay

less real regard to them in the stating of crimes, than the Jewish rulers did.

(9.) The Jewish magiftrates were appointed to promote the welfare of the Church, in order to promote the welfare of the State, in subordination to the honour of God, the King of the nation. Magi." strates are still bound to do the same, as they have opportunity, Isa. xlix. 23. & lx. 3, 10, 16. Rev. xvii. 16. & xxi. 24, 26. Rom. xiii. 146. 1 Pet. ii. 13, 14. 1 Tim. ii. 1-4.

(10.) The Jewish Church and State, as hath been just now proven, were really distinct from, and independent of each other, having different laws, of ficers, courts, privileges, penalties, &c. The Chrifti. an Church and the civil State of Christians are no less distinct and independent of each other.

(11.) Nevertheless, the purity of the Jewish Church, contributed much to the welfare of their State, and the right management of their State to the prosperity of their Church; and bad manage., ment in the one always tended to the hurt of the other, Deut. xxviii.xxxii. Lev. xxvi. Judges i.xiii. i Sam. ii.--to 2 Chron. xxxvi. Ifa. i. -to Mal. iv. Isa. 1. 19, 20. & iii. 10, 11. And still righteousness exalteth a nation, and fin is the reproach and ruin of any people, Prov. xiv. 34. (12.) God never commanded the Jewish magic


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