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for good to men, their power over their subjects is of a LORDLY nature. They are lordly fathers, who, by making and enforcing civil laws, can compel the disobedient.--In this view, if they establish any thing pertaining to the Church, they establish it as a mean of honouring God their Superior, in the advancement of the welfare of the Commonwealth. If they punish faults, they consider them as crimes, injurious to the happiness of the State, dishonouring God its fupreme Governor, and provoking his wrath against it, and they punish those crimes only
the outward man, by fining, imprisonment, death, C.But Church power is altogether MINISTERIAL, distributing to men, reproofs, admonitions, and other ordinances, according to the inspired prescriptions of Christ, Mat. xvi. 19. & xviii. 18. I Cor. iv. 1, 2. Christ being her alone Lord, Church-rulers have no power to make any laws properly so called, Ifa. xxxiii. 22. James iv. 12. In dealing with offenders, they consider faults, even oppression tyranny, sinful wars and leauges, perversion of judgment, bribery or the like in magiftrates, who are members, not as crimes but merely as scandals, defiling and ruining men's souls, plaguing the Church, and dishonouring and provoking Christ and his Father in him, against it. They have no compulsory power,--can punish no man either in his person or his external property,---can use no wea. pons but such as are spiritual, mighty through God; administring Church censures, not as punishments, but as spiritual privileges, and divinely instituted means of bringing offenders to a thorough repentance of their fins, to the eternal salvation of their fouls.mamAnd this whole power must be used, only in the name of Jesus Christ, as Head of his Church, 2 Cor. i. 24. X. 4, 5, 8. xiii. 8, 10. ii. 610. 1. Cor. v. 4
4. Civil and ecclefiaftical power differ in their PROPER END. The formal end of magiftratıcal power is to advance the glory of God, the King of nations, in promoting the welfare of the Commonwealth;and the establishment of the true religion, and care to promote the prosperity and propagation of the Church, are used as eminent means of gaining that end. Or, the good of the Church may also be confidered as an accesory end of civil administration, as the better civil justice be executed, open out-breakings restrained, and virtue encouraged by the magistrate, the fewer will probably be the scandals, and the greater the purity and prosperity of the Church. Nay, though the advancement of the Church's welfare be not the formal end of magistracy, yet as Christ is made Head over all things to his Church, every magistrate, who profeffeth the Chriftian religion, ought to pursue the formal end of his office, as fubordinated to his Chriftian end of promoting the glory of God in the welfare of the Church and eternal salvation of men. -But the formal end of all Church-power is the glorifying of God in Christ, by promoting the spiritual conviction, conversion and edification of men's souls; and the welfare of nations is but an accessory or subordinate end, at which Church-rulers, as subjects in the State, ought always to aim; as the better they profecute and obtain the end of their office, the fewer will be the crimes, the better both subjects and magistrates, and the more numerous and valuable the bleffings of God on the nation.
5. Civil and ecclefiaftical power differ in their PROPER EFFECTS. The proper effect of magistratical power, rightly exercised, is the good of the Commonwealth, in their commodious enjoyment of civil privileges, in a manner mightily calculated to promote the honour of God, as the Most High over.
all the earth;---and the purity, peace and pro(perity of the Church, arising from the right adminiftration of justice, discouragement of evil doers, and praise of them that do well, is but an accessory effect. Butthe proper effect of Church power rightly
exercised, is the conversion of men to Jesus Christ, fellowship with him, and growth in grace and good works, to the praise of his glory; and the advantage accruing to cities or nations, by the virtuous lives and fervent prayers of Church meinbers, is but an accessory effect of it.
6. Civil and ecclesiastical power differ in their SUBJECTS of residence. No ecclesiastical power can reside in a heathen, a woman, or a child; and no power of jurisdiction in a single person;-as civil power
often may, or doth. Nor can one ecclesiastic officer delegate his power to another.
7. They differ in their FORMAL CONSIDERA TION OF THE PERSONS UPON WHOM THEY ARE EXERCISED. A magistrate's power extends over all powers refir dent in his territory, be their moral character what it will, Jews, Heathens, &c. Rom. xii. I. Church-power extends only to the professed mem. bers of Christ's mystical body, the Church, 1 Cor. V. 12, 13
8. Civil and ecclesiastical power differ in respect of their divided EXERCISE.. The one may, and ought to be exercised, whether the other be fo or not.--The end of Church-censure being to gain finners to repentance and falvation scandalous persons appearing penitent, ougiit to be seasonably absolved from it, and restored to communion with the Church in fealing ordinances. But the end of civil punishment being the satisfaction of the law, and the deterring of others from the like faults, criminals, however penitent and fully restored to Church-fellowship, may, as the nature of their crime deinands, be puna ished, even unto death. . And suppose a Churchmember should have satisfied the demands of the civil law for a crime, he ought to be profecuted and censured for it as a scandal, by the ecclesiastical courts, till he appear duly penitent. Not only ought Church-rulers to cenfure fcandalous persons, when magistrates take no notice of their faults, but even to cenfure magistrates, who are Church-members, for what wickedness they commit under colour of countenance from the civil law.
And where magiftrates punish, and Church-rulers censure the same persons for the same faults, the proceflus ought to be kept entirely distinct from, and independent of each other;-though, to prevent unnecessary fwearing, the proof taken in one court may sometimes be produced and judged of, also in the other.
OBJECT. XXII. « Magistrates not being proper judges of the doctrines of Revelation, cannot be capable to judge concerning religious matters, and particularly to determine who are heretics, blafphemers, or idolaters."
ANSW. 1. That they have a right to judge in these matters hath been already established.
2. God, who knows all things, admits private Christians to be capable of judging what is heresy, blasphemy and idolatry, and who are heretics, blafphemers and idolaters, and hence commands them to keep themselves from these fins, and to avoid fuch seducers, and debar them from their houfes, Rom. xvi. 17, 2 Tim. ii. 5: 1 Cor. V. 11. 1 John iv. I. 3. & v. 26. '2 John gIl. Now what hinders Christian magistrates to have as much good sense and as much capacity of judging in these matters, as common Christians.
3. The gross errors, 'blasphemies and idolatries which magistrates ought to restrain, and suitably and feasonably punish, are so plainly condenined by the word of God, which magistrates ought carefully to search, under the direction of the Holy Spirit, that any unbiased person of common capacity may easily difcern them.
4. The advice of faithful ministers; and the common consent of Chriftian Churches, may aslift magiftrates in discerning from the word of God, what is gross or damnable heresy, blasphemy, idolatry.
OBJECC. XXIII. “ If magistrates, as such, have a power of judging in religious matters, then Heathen magistrates must also be allowed to make laws concerning religion and the Church, while in the mean time they cannot be censured by the Church, if they do amiís."
Answ. 1. What could you gain, if I should plead, that it is magistrates' Chriftianity requiring them to execute their office in subordination to it, that is the immediate origin of their power about the niatters of religion, even as it is parents' Christianity that warrants them to receive . baptism for their infants? But
2. Heathen magistrates, with God's direction and approbation, have made laws respecting religion, Ezra vii. 13-28. vi. 1-14. i. 1-3. Dan. iii. 29. vi. 26. 'Jonah iii. Dare you condemn the Almighty?
* 3. Heathen magistrates - have the same power as Chriftian magiftrates, but are less capable to use it aright; even as heathen parents and masters have the same power over their children and servants as Chriftians, but are less qualified to difcern and perform their duty.
4. Neither Heathen nor Christian magistrates have any power at all againft the truth, but for the truth, any power for the deftruction of the Church, but for her edification, 2 Cor. xiii. 8, 10.
5. Heathen magistrates therefore, ought carefully to improve what assistance they have by the light of