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Initial approaches to vegetation study
Initial approaches to soil study
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acidic agricultural animals approach areas become biogeography birch Britain British Isles brown earths Cairngorm Cairngorm Mountains Calluna changes chemical classification clay climatic climax community climax vegetation complex crop cycle deciduous deer dominant Ecol ecologists ecosystem energy environment environmental erosion example fire Flandrian forest Forestry Forestry Commission gley soils grass grazing ground flora growth heather herbivores Highlands horizon humus important increase influence insect land landscape layer leached lichen litter methods mineral moorland moors mountain native natural nutrients oakwoods occur organic parent material pattern peat pedogenic pest pine pinewood plagioclimax plant communities plant cover podzol pollen population present produce quadrat recent regeneration region sample Scotland Scots pine Scottish Highlands seedlings shrubs slopes soil types spread stage structure surface Table temperature timber-line tree species tree-line upland usually variations vegetation whilst wood woodland zone