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to time felt the solid social structure tremble under your feet, and thought that you could hear in the distance the sound of rising waters and of rushing mighty winds. There are great things before us which the blindest eye can see:

“ The Federations that may grow,

The rast Republics and the powers,
Titanic forces taking birth
In divers seasons, divers climes,
For we are ancients of the earth
And in the morning of the times.”

Those forces it is our duty to control and guide, for we are not merely the ministers of justice, great and august as that title must forever be, we should be the guardians of liberty, yes, and the pioneers of truth, and it lies with us to see that these great expanding powers may be guided, directed and developed so that they may produce a nobler life and an ampler liberty for those who will succeed to our struggles and to the victories that we have won

The Romans had a proud boast contained in only three words, “ Imperium et libertas,” three words, but words of what tremendous meaning. liberty and wide-reaching power; may these be at once the symbol

Empire and Liberty; freedom and power; well-ordered and the watchword of our great federated commonwealth of nations when we are only portions of its forgotten dust.

Shapurji Saklatvala, Communist member of Parliament, and one of the delegates to the Inter-parliamentary Union which is to meet at Washington next month, has been refused permission to enter the United States.

Ile was notified by the United States consular officials in London, by order of Secretary of State Kellogg, that his visa to visit Washing ton had been revoked. He thereupon wrote to the United States consul general complaining of the “ arbitrariness” of Secretary logg's action, and gave out a number of statements on the injustice of his treatment. Nothing was said, however, as to whether or not he will journey to Canada to attend the Union's congress when it sits in Ottawa.


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In an address delivered by him before the Ontario Bar Association, in the month of May last, Dr. D. A. MacRae gave expression to certain very definite opinions in respect of the problem of the preliminary education which should be required of a Student entering upon the study of law. His address was necessarily too comprehensive to be reproduced as an article in the REVIEW, but as the subject is one of manifest importance, calling for very serious consideration, it is intended in this article to make an effort to reproduce the opinions of Dr. MacRae, using his own language with great freedom, and on the distinct understanding that, although the writer concurs in everything that he says, Dr. MacRae is to have full credit for all that is said.

At the outset, it must be borne in mind that Ontario delights to be called the premier province of the Dominion of Canada, and lawyers practising in Ontario are apt to think that their institutions are of the best. We also like to think that Canada ranks favourably with the United States in all matters of social well-being. Hence it was a very great shock to the present writer, when reading a publication of the Carnegie Foundation a few years ago, to find that the Law School of the Province of Ontario was very far down indeed in the list, although the shock was mitigated by the information that the Dalhousie Law School, of which Dr. MacRae was then the Dean, ranked very high. Since that time, there has been a re-organization of the Ontario Law School, and Dr. MacRae has shewn his strength by accepting a position junior to his old friend, Dean Falconbridge. Those best informed have every confidence that there will be real cooperation between the two, and that if they are given proper opportunity, they will in time place the Law School at Osgoode Hall in the position which it should occupy. The fact that this situation exists is a very pregnant reason why very careful consideration should be given to any utterance of Dr. MacRae upon the subject of legal education. It is not merely a matter of today or tomorrow; it concerns the whole future of the administration of law in the Province of Ontario.

The text is found in a quotation from the Report of the Committee on Legal Education of the Canadian Bar Association for 1923: “ The

question of a proper standard of preliminary education for law students is fundamental to all other questions of legal education. Until a creditable standard of preliminary education for all students seeking admission to study law has been adopted throughout Canada other improvements in legal education will be attended with difficulty. The foundation must be well and truly laid before the superstructure can be well builded." There can be no question as to the truth of this statement, and the Legal Education Committee of the Association has been consistent in recommending improvements in the standard. Everybody agrees that the Committee has been right in theory, but the outstanding difficulty has been what is very aptly termed the “ Abraham Lincoln argument." The force of that argument turns upon the fact that this is a democratic country, and that if a University education should become a necessary preliminary to the study of law, the young man who is financially unable to attend a University will be prevented from entering the profession. In Ontario emphasis is added to this argument by reason of the fact that certain eminent leaders of the Bar today are not University men, and their success is said to demonstrate as a fact that University education is not essential. Upon the surface, this argument seems to be a potent one, but by those who had the advantage of hearing Dr. MacRae's address, it was found to be altogether superficial. There is a type of man whose native qualities are so exceptional that he cannot be kept down, and it is altogether to the credit of the gentlemen in question that they have won to the places they occupy without the advantage of a University education. Their success, however, does not demonstrate anything as to the principle underlying the question of legal education. The present writer had the advantage of being a student at Queen's University at a time when perhaps the larger number of students there were actually fighting their way through the University. Many years have gone by since then, and many of these struggling young men have attained high places, as a result of their education there, without which they would probably have been still "splitting rails."

For purposes of comparison, the standards of preliminary education in the various common law Provinces of Canada may be arranged as follows, the grade of standard in each case being interpreted in terms of University matriculation and the Arts course. This statement is based upon changes recently decided upon, and to be brought. into effect in New Brunswick and Alberta, and must be taken as subject to possible correction :


Manitoba, Nova Scotia, New
Brunswick, Alberta

Matriculation plus two years in

Arts, or equivalent. British Columbia, Saskatchewan, Quebec, Prince Edward Island.. Matriculation plus one year in

Arts, or equivalent. Ontario

. Matriculation plus Honour ex

aminations in four subjects, estimated to be equivalent to two-thirds of the first year in Arts.

It will be seen that Ontario occupies the unique position of being the only province which accepts anything less than the equivalent of one year in Arts, while today Manitoba and Nova Scotia require the equivalent of two years in Arts, and New Brunswick and Alberta propose to follow suit at once. Probably very few lawyers realize that this is the present situation, but those who desire to give it proper consideration will naturally wish to discuss the question from all points of view. Space prevents comparison with Law Schools in the United States, and it is sufficient for the moment to consider the situation in Canada. Why should Ontario remain in what appears to be a position of inferiority? What are the reasons in favour of an increase of the standard ? It will be impossible to discuss all the points involved in these questions at length, and the most one can venture to do is to refer briefly to some of them. First, there is the broad reason of the educational needs of the lawyer for effective citizenship. To be a good lawyer, one must be also a good citizen. To be a good citizen, and to do good effectively needs more education than was needed a generation ago, for the simple reason that people generally are better educated than they were then. In the race of life the start is important, and if a young man starts with an inferior general education, his lack of it soon becoms apparent, and is very likely to diminish his influence with his fellow-citizens. Life is more complex than formerly, and the problems of life require broad and careful wisdom for their solution. Wisdom may be instinctive in the young man, but it is elementary that the more education he has, the more opportunity for the development of his wisdom and making it effective. At a dinner given in honour of his eightieth birthday some months ago, Mr. Elihu Root, speaking with all his vast experience of men and affairs, said :

“We are becoming a better educated people. I doubt not that Mr. Hughes and Mr. Beck will agree with me when I say that the young lawyers who are coming to the bar include a vast number of young men of the first ability, far better educated than I was, or my associates were, when I came to the Bar 58 years ago. It is so with physicians; far better educated, more scientific men, the physicians are. And the engineers, and all the great throng of men using their brains in the new professions, in all branches of science

It seems that we are in general becoming a better educated and more competent people. All over the land behold the rush of American youth to the colleges and universities for learning-nothing like it was ever seen in the world. The nearest that we can come to it is in that great crowding into the universities upon the dawn of the new learning that let the light in upon the darkness of the Middle Ages.”

In a recent article in Law Notes, Mr. Shumaker, after pointing out the complex system of industry which has come into being in the present age and the new type of business man it is producing, and after predicting that the leading business men of the future will be in the main college men, goes on to warn us that if lawyers wish to avoid the fact of becoming mere hirelings or superior clerks, there is but one remedy, and that is “ to increase the mental stature and equipment of its members.

If the bar is to maintain its status as an independent profession the lawyer must bring to consultation with the educated business man an education and culture at least equal.

Long traditions of professional dignity will no longer serve. Only a real superiority of intellect and training over his clients will maintain the lawyer in his independent position.” IIere, then, we are furnished with another reason for a larger measure of education for the lawyer than was formerly necessary. His clients are better educated. They demand more of him in the way of general knowledge and education than the old type of business men did.

One other practical reason which should not be overlooked is that the entrance requirement of other professions which are fairly comparable with that of law is higher than our entrance requirement, and the effect is to divert into the legal profession a very considerable number of young men who merely want to get into some profession and are led to choose law, because it is cheapest and easiest to enter. A young man who has completed ordinary matriculation and contemplates entering the medical profession must take one more year at the


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