Roland Ulber, Dieter Sell, Peter Babiak
Springer Science & Business Media, Feb 13, 2007 - Science - 301 pages
Hardly any other term in the ?eld of biotechnologyhas been the subject of so muchdiscussionamongexpertsaswhitebiotechnologyatpresent.Thistermis an alias for “industrial biotechnology,” an already established “heavyweight” that focuses on the production of the most diverse products (bulk and ?ne chemicals, enzymes, food and animal feed additives, pharmaceutically active substances and agrochemicals,auxiliary agents for processindustries, etc.). Insomesegments,whitebiotechnologyhasalreadycapturedleadingmarket positions: – In recent years the annual biotechnological production of amino acids exceeded one million tons. – Invitaminproductiontherehavebeen several recent casesofachangeover from a chemical to a biotechnological synthesis process, a trend that is expected to increase. – During the last 10 years the market volume for enzymes has increased by 50%. – The successful launch of polylactide marked white biotechnology's bre- throughinto the ?eld ofpolymers and synthetics. Today crude oil is the most important energy source and the most widely used chemical raw material. Both primary industry and polymer chemistry currently depend to a great extent on oil. However, it is only a matter of time beforetheworld'soilreservesaredepleted.Almostallstudiespresentedtodate agreethatpeakoil,i.e.thepointintimewhenoilextractionreachesitshighest level, will take place in the ?rst half of the present century. The increasingly dif?cultdevelopmentofnewsourcesofoilhavetriggeredinitiativesworldwide to reduce national dependence on oil imports.
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afﬁnity amino acids amylase analysis Angew Chem Int application assays beneﬁts biocatalysts Biochem Bioeng bioethanol Biol biomass bioprocess bioreactor bioreﬁnery biosensor Biotech Biotechnology biotransformations carbohydrates carbon cellulose Chem chemical chemosensors chiral chromatography coefﬁcients coli concentration crystallization cultivation Curr Opin degradation detection detergent downstream processing efﬁcient enantiomer enantioselective environmental enzymatic enzyme ester ethanol fed-batch feed feedstock fermentation ﬁber ﬁeld ﬁrst ﬂow ﬂuorescence ﬂux gene glucose high-throughput hydrolysis improved industrial inﬂuence inulin Kamm kinetic lactic acid lignocellulosic lipases measurement metabolic metabolites methods microarrays microbial microorganisms microtiter plates modiﬁed molecules monitoring Novozymes nutrients optimization oxygen phytase plant polymers potential production proﬁle protease protein protein microarrays pulp puriﬁcation racemic raw materials reaction reactor reduce reﬁning Reymond J-L screening shake ﬂasks signiﬁcant speciﬁc starch strategy substrate sugar synthesis Technol textile tion wash temperature Weinheim yeast yield zymes