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The North Carolina and Virginia resolutions Congress for final action, When the rote was were incentives to similar action in other colonies. about to be taken in Congress, Rutledge of South The assembly of Connecticut, June 14th, instructed | Carolina asked to have it postponed until the folits delegates in Congress in favor of " independ- lowing day, July 2d, expressing the hope that by ence, confederation and foreign alliance."

that time his colleagues from that colony might New Hampshire, June 15th, voted in favor be ready to vote for the resolution. The vote was " of declaring the thirteen united colonies free then postponed. In the mean time, between the and independent States, and solemnly pledged vote in the committee of the whole, July ist, and their faith and honor to support the measure with the meeting of Congress, July 2d, the circum. their lives and fortune.'

stances which prevented unanimity in committee New Jersey, by provincial convention, on the were entirely changed. 21st of June, eleceed new delegates, and instructed Of the nine delegates appointed by Pennsylvathem, if you should judge it necessary or expe- nia seven only were present on July ist in comdient for this purpose, we empower you to join mittee of the whole. Edward Biddle was sick, with them in declaring the united colonies free of and Andrew Allen had joined, or was about to Great Britain," etc.

join, the British. Of the remaining delegates, The assembly of Pennsylvania, on the 14th of John Dickinson, Robert Morris, Charles HumJune, adopted instructions to her delegates in phreys and Thomas Willing voted against the Congress who had been clected by the assembly motion to report Lee's resolution. Benjamin which might be called non-committal. They Franklin, John Morton and James Wilson voted were authorized to concur with other delegates for it. The vote of Pennsylvania was thus lost "in forming such other compacts between the by a majority of one. South Carolina voted united colonics, concluding such treaties between unanimously against it. Delaware, as mentioned, foreign kingcions and the States, and in adopting gave no yote, McKean being for the resolution such other measures as upon a view of all the cir- and Read against it, Rodney being absent. On cumstances shall be judged necessary for promote the ad of July there was a change. Rodney was ing the liberty, safety and interest of America,” brought up from Delaware and voted aye, and etc. Very different was the language of the pro- that State was recorded in favor of the resolution vincial conference which met at Philadelphia on of independence. South Carolina changed her the 24th of June. In their declaration they charged vote and went for the resolution unanimously. King George the Third with violating the princi- Pennsylvania was carried for the resolution, not ples of the British constitution, and with various by a majority of her delegates, but by a majority wrongs and grievances against the people of of those who were present. John Dickinson and America, arbitrary and unjust in character, with Robert Morris did not take their seats on the ad which Parliament had concurred, and, said these of July. This left a representation of five memdelegates, we “do, in this public manner, in be- bers. Three of them-Franklin, Morton and half of ourselves, and with the approbation, au. Wilson--voted for the resolution ; Humphreys and thority and consent of our constituents, unani- Willing yoted against it, and thus by one-third of mously declare our willingness to concur in a vote her whole delegation Pennsylvania's vote was re: of the Congress declaring the united colonies free corded in favor of the resolution. and independent States.

Thus, on the ad of July, 1776, the resolution deDelaware, on the 14th of June, the same day claring the United Colonies to be “ free and indeupon which the Pennsylvania assembly instructed pendent States" was adopted by the unanimous her delegates in a feeble way to concur in forming vote of twelve colonies, New York still declining compacts between the colonies and making tre

What the ideas of the members were ties with foreign kingdoms, spoke nearly in the as to the validity of the vote if there had been a same language.

mere majority--say seven States-is not now As far as any assent to a declaration of inde known. Evidenily' they hoped for the assent of pendence was concerned, it therefore appeared the whole thirteen States. But they had nine that at the beginning of July only five States-- States in the committee of the whole on the ist North Carolina, Virginia, New Hampshire, New day of July, and eleven clearly on the ad, and Jersey and Pennsylvania, the latter by her confer: twelve States, with Pennsylvania's doubtful vote, ence speaking in opposition to her assembly-had carried by a minority. given anything like assent to the extreme measure. After the adoption of Lee's resolution on the

On the 28th of June, Jefferson's committee re- 2d, the form of the declaration was debated on the ported the draft of a declaration of independence. 3d and 4th, and after amendment was finally It was read and laid on the table. On the ist of adopted on the latter day. The vote was the July, according to the original resolution of post- same as on the 2d, twelve colonies in favor, New ponement, Congress took up Richard Henry Lee's York not voting. Pennsylvania was carried exresolution of independence in committee of the actly as she was on the 2d, three to two, Morris, whule. The motion in committee of the whole to Dickinson, Biddle and Allen absent. The State agree to the resolution and report it to the Cons of New York afterward, on the oth of July, at gress for final action was agreed to by the follow- White Plains, in convention, resolved that the ing vote : New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Con- resolution and declaration of independence be apnecticut, Rhode Island, New Jersey, Maryland, proved, and her delegates in Congress be empowVirginia, North Carolina and Georgia voted for ered to adopt and concert all necessary measures, the motion; Pennsylvania and South Carolina etc., connected with the same, It was for this voted against it; Delaware did not vote because reason that when the declaration was first pubits two delegates present were equally divided; lished in Dunlap's Packet of July 6th it was New York did not vote because the subject of in styled " a declaration by the representatives of dependence was outside of their instructions. the United States of America in Congress assemThe resolution was thus, by the votes of nine colo bled."., On the 19th of July, four days after the nies in committee of the whole, reported to the New York resolutions were presented to Con

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APRIL.

(1876.
MOON'S PHASES, Philadelphia.
d. k. m.

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Full Moon... 8 2 38 P.M.

New Moon... 24 2 AM
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Ab

1 July 22 Sabbath and New Moon. Jupiter 6° north of the Moon April 12.

9 30 Fast of Ab. [Destruction Saturn 1° 19.

of the Temple in Jeru-
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Venus
20

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15 Aug. 5 Sabbath and Chamisha

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New Moon, HEBREW CALENDAR FOR 1876.

13 Sept. 2

Sabbath. 5636. 1876.

5637.

1876. Tebeth 4 Jan. 1 Sabbath,

Tishri 1 Sept. 19 Rosh Hoshaana. Shebat I 27 New Moon,

3

Fast of Guedaliah. 15 Feb. 10 Chamisha Assar.

5

23 Sabbath. Adar

I
26 New Moon and Sabbath.

10

28 Yom Hakippur. * 13 Mar. 9 Fast of Esther.

15 Oct. 3 ist Day of Suckoth.* 14 JO Feast of Purim.

19

7 Sabbath and Chol Moed. Nisan 26 New Moon.

9 Hoshaana Rabba.
15
Apr. 9
1st Day of Passover.

TO Shemini Azereth,
21 15 7th Day of Passover.*

23

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Heshvan

19 New Moon. Iyar

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10

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gress, it was resolved that the declaration passed Lee, Thomas Jefferson, Benjamin Harrison, on the 4th be fairly engrossed on parchment, with Thomas Nelson, George Wythe, Francis Lightthe title and style of the unanimous declaration foot Lee; February 23. 1776, Carter Braxton. of the thirteen United States of America," and the The legislature of Virginia had made a new same, when engrossed, be signed by every member election on the 30th of June, but the certificates of Congress.

were not presented until the 28th of August. An important error has been sanctioned in re- North Carolina, May 11, 1775, William Hooper, gard to this instrument for nearly a hundred years Joseph Hewes ; October 13th, John Penn. by the manner in which the journals of Congress South Carolina, April 24, 1776, Thomas Lynch, have been printed. Aitkins & Dunlap's edition John Rutledge, Edward Rutledge, Arthur Middleof the journals of Congress, printed in 1778, in the ton, Thomas Heyward, Jr., Thomas Lynch, Jr. minute for the 4th of July, says, " The declaration Georgia, May 20, 1776, Lyman Hall, Button being read, it was agreed to as follows." To this Gwinnett, Archibald Bullock, John Houston, succeeds the text of the declaration and the signa. George Walton. tures of fifty-five representatives, the name of Rhode Island, May 14, 1776, Stephen Hopkins, Thomas McKean of Delaware, who undoubtedly William Ellery. signed, and who makes the fifty-sixth signer, being omitted altogether. The signatures to this copy MEMBERS Of Congress, JULY 4, 1776, who of the declaration are not, and could not have

DID NOT SIGN THE DECLARATION. been, those placed to it on the 4th of July, 1776,

New Hampshire, John Langdon. if any declaration was signed on that day, be

Connecticut, Titus Hosmer. cause cight of them are of persons who were not members of Congress at that time. It is the en

New York, James Duane, John Alsop, John grossed copy of August 2d, and the signatures at Livingston, Jr., Philip Schuyler.

Jay, Henry Wisner, George Clinton, Robert R. tached to it up to or after November 4th, which are published in Dunlap's journals as those of the orig phreys, Edward Biddle, Thomas Willing, Andrew

Pennsylvania, John Dickinson, Charles Huminal signers on the 4th of July. This error or in.

Allen. terpolation has had much to do with subsequent

Maryland, Matthew Tilghman, Thomas Johnconfusion among historical writers in regard to

son, Jr., Robert Goldsborough, John Hall. the point. If, as Jefferson said, the declaration

South was signed by every member present on the 4th of

Carolina, John Rutledge, Thomas

Lynch, Sr. July, it is strange that the names were not pub

Some of these may be accounted for: Langdoi. Tished with the contemporary copy of the docu

of New Hampshire was appointed prize agent of ment. No other names appear to the official copies sent out by Congress, or published in news

that colony on the 25th of June, and was probably papers by authority of that body, excepe Johnnecticut was an alternate, and was not entitled to

not again present in Congress. Hosmer of ConHancock, president, and Charles Thomson, sec

vote if the principal were present. The New York retary The following analysis of the votes in Congress sider that they had a right to vote.

delegates, under their instructions, did not con

Biddle of upon Lee's resolution and the declaration, and Pennsylvania was sick: Dickinson, Humphreys statement as to the respective views of the mem

and Willing were opposed to independence. Allen bers at that time and subsequently, will be of had become alarmed at the progress of affairs, interest.

was opposed to independence, and in December, MEMBERS OF CONGRESS, JULY 4, 1776.

1776, put himself under the protection of General

Howe. Goldsborough and Hall of Maryland were New Hampshire, appointed February 29, 1776, superseded on the 18th of July, and had no opporWilliam H. Whipple, John Langdon, Josiah tunity to sign the declaration on the ad of August. Bartlett.

Why Massachusetts, February 9, 1776, John Han. Tilghman and Johnson were re-elected. cock, Samuel Adams, John Adams, Robert Treat they did not sign the declaration is not known.

Thomas Lynch, Sr., of South Carolina, was sick. Paine, Elbridge Gerry. Connecticut, January 16, 1776, Roger Sherman, John Rutledge of the same State was at home as

a member of the State convention to prepare a Oliver Wolcott, Samuel Huntingdon, Titus Hos- constitution for the State. Archibald Bullock of mer, William Williams. New York, May 11, 1776, Philip Livingston, Georgia was acting as president of that colony,

and was not at Philadelphia. James Duane, John Alsop, William Floyd, Lewis Morris, John Jay, Henry Wisner, Philip Schuy Members of Congress whO VOTED AGAINST ler, George Clinton, Francis Lewis, Robert Ř,

THE RESOLUTION AND DECLARATION OF INLivingston, Jr.

DEPENDENCE, AND AFTERWARD SIGNED THE New Jersey, June 28, 1776, Richard Stockton,

DECLARATION.
Abraham Clark, John Hart, Francis Hopkinson,
Dr. John Witherspoon.

Pennsylvania, Robert Morris.
Pennsylvania, November 3, 1775, John Morton,

Lower Counties on the Delaware, George Read. John Dickinson, Robert Morris, Benjamin Franklin, Charles Humphreys, Edward Biddle, Thomas Signers of DeclaratION WHO WERE NOT MEMWilling, Andrew Allen and James Wilson.

BERS OF CONGRESS WHEN IT WAS ADOPTED. Lower Counties on the Delaware, May 11. 1775, New Hampshire, Matthew Thornton, admitted Cæsar Rodney, Thomas McKean and George November 4, 1776. Read.

Pennsylvania, Dr. Benjamin Rush, Col. George Maryland, September 13. 1775, Matthew Tilgh. Ross, George Clymer, Col. James Smith, George man, Thomas Jolinson, Jr., Robert Goldsborough, Taylor, admitted July 20, 1776. William Paca, Thomas Stone and John Hall. Maryland, Charles Carroll of Carrollton, Sam

Virginia, September 13, 1775, Richard Henry ) uel Chase, returned July 18, 1776.

Fifth Month,]

MAY.

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MOON'S PHASES, Philadelphia,
d. k. m.

d. k. m.
Full Moon... 8 4 52 A.M.

New Moon... 23 10 25 A.M.
Last Quarter 16 8 26 A.M. » First Quarter 30 o 47 A.M.

PHENOMENA,
THE SUN, THE MOON,

THE TIDES,
Philadelphia. Philadelphia,

Philadelphia.
Rises Souths Sets Rises. Souths Sets. High Tide.

Low Tide.

(Apo., 12d. 6h. A.M.
P.M.
P.M.
P.M.
A.M. A.M. P.M. A.M.P.M.

(Per., 240 2h. A.M. k.m. m. s.h.m. h. m. h. m. k. m. d. *. m. k. m. h. m. h. m. IM 5 3 66 55 7 14 I 48 7 7 53 8 26

2 42

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8 2 2 16

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4 57

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4 56 3 25 6 58
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6

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4
8

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917 940 6.4

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4 10 41 3 2 6 32 17 3 27 3 51 10 46 11 10 6.5 10.51 P.M. sets. 4 48 3 51 7 5 11 27 3 53 7 24 18 4 14 4 37 11 33 11 56 6.5 10.45 P.M Arctur. S. 4 47 3 52 7 6 | A.M. 4 42 8 22 19 5 o 5 23

0 19 6.4 9.26 P.M. sets, 135 14 S 4 46 3 52 7 7 o 5 5 29 9 24 20 5 45 6

7 0 42

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8

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W
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2 12

2 48 25
9 53 10 20

5 12 5.4 1.21 A.M. h rises. 141 20 S

4 40 3 40 7 12 2 33 10 0 3 59 20 10 47 11 16 5 39 6 6 5.6 10.47 P.M. sets. 4 39 3 36 7 13 2 58 10 55 5 15 27 11 43

6 35 7 2 5.8 2.11 P.M, ÓVO 4 38 3 32 7 14 3 29 11 56 6 34 28 O II 0 381 7 30 7 57 6.0 9.07 P.M. & sets. 144 23 Tu 4 38 3 27 7 15

4 7 P.M.
7 5529 15 1 29

8 24 8 48 6.2

9.17 P.M. o sets. 4 371 3 21 7 16 4 56 1

9 12 I 58 2 27 9 17 9 46 6.4 11.57 P.M. O OCA 146 25 Th 4 37 3 15 7 17 6 0 2

9
Io 16

2 57 3 27 10 16 10 46 6.5 4.32 A.M.O. 147 26 F

4 36 3 9 7 18 7 12 3 15 11 9 3 3 56 4 25 11 15 "I 44 6.5 11.37 A.M. Ona 148 27 S 14 36 3 2 7 18 8 31 4 15 II 48 4 4 531 5 20 0 12 6.411.11 P.M. 27 S. 4 35 2 53 7 19 9 48 5 10 A.M.

5 5 46 6 11

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I 5 6.2

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2 18

2 42 5.7. 11.46 P.M. Antaress. 152 37 W 4 34 2 307 2111 1 18 7 29

8 8

8 16 8 43 3 9 3 35 5.5 9.14 P.M. Procy, sets. MAY.

meridian at 9 o'clock in the evening, and continue Jupiter 50 north of the Moon, May 9. visible in the evening for two or three months. Saturn close

17.

Saturn (k) can be seen in the evening just after Mars 4° south

25. sunset until Feb, 17, when it passes west of the Venus °

26. sun and is not again visible, except in the morn

ing, until the middle of July, when it rises at 9 PLANETS.

o'clock in the evening. On the evening of Jan. MERCURY ( 8 ) will be at its greatest distance 16 Venus and Saturn set together at 7.20 P.N., east of the sun, Jan. 28, May 4 and September being within ° of each other at that time. 17, when it may be looked for about the time of sunset. Its greatest western elongation is March In this country we know of no paper which 10, July 8 and October 28, and it may be seen more thoroughly reflects its constituency than the before sunrise.

Public Ledger of Philadelphia, as well in tone Venus (9) will be evening star until its con- and character as in its quiet mode of expressing junction with the sun on the 14th of July. It its views. Philadelphia is largely influenced by then passes to the west of the sun and becomes its Quaker origin, and every organ of society is morning star, and so continues throughout the subject to that influente more or less. The eviyear. It is most brilliant on the 7th of June in dences of methodical habit and quietness are to the evening, and on the 20th of August in the be seen and felt everywhere, notwithstanding morning

temporary enthusiasms and ebullitions to the conMars (3) will be visible in the evening until trary. T'he advertising columns of the Ledger August. It will be twice in conjunction with are a wonderful epitome of the people's daily life Venus, and on the 29th of March Venus will ap- and needs, comprising twenty-five or twenty-six proach within about 1° north of Mars.

of the entire thirty-two columns of the paper, Jupiter (4) will be visible only in the morning making us wonder how so much news is crowded until the 8th of March, when it will rise at mid- into the remainder and our mouths water at the night. By the 26th of June it will be on the receipts.-Chronicle, Washington, D.C.

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The Declaration of Independence was drafted by Jefferson, and examined and slightly amended

QUALIFICATIONS OF Electors, by Franklin and Adams. It was written by Jef

VOTING ON AGE.--Every male citizen between ferson in the first room of the second story of the

the ages of twenty-one and twenty-two years may house of Jacob Graff, south-west corner of 7th and

vote without being assessed. He must previously Market streets, which is still standing. Jefferson have resided in the State one year, and in the was a boarder in that house, and in that chamber, election district (or division) where he offers to according to his own statement made in a letter to

vote for at least two months before the election. Dr. James Mease, September 16, 1825, the De

If his name is not on the registry of voters, he must claration of Independence was written.

make affidavit, if a native citizen, as to his birthCongress adopted the declaration in secret ses place and residence in the district for two months, sion. It was already known on the 4th that Lee's

and in the State for one year, except in case he resolution, which was the vital act in the opposi- had been a resident and removed therefrom and tion to Great Britain, had been adopted on the again returned, when six months' residence will 2d. The declaration was merely an assignment be sufficient. If the claimant is not native born, of reasons for the passage of the resolution, a vin

but the son of a citizen naturalized before the son dication of an act already done. There was, there- was twenty-one years of age, he must also produce fore, no excitement in Philadelphia at the time the proof of his father's naturalization, of which the declaration was adopted. In fact, the character

naturalization certificate will be the best evidence. of the declaration was not known until two days A NATURAL Born CITIZEN over twenty-two afterward, when it made its appearance in Dunlap's paper. On the sth of July Congress sent

years of age must have paid within two years a

State or county tax, which shall have been asout circular letters to all the assemblies, conven

sessed at least two months and paid one month tions and councils of safety of the various States, asking that the Declaration of Independence State one year, or if having previously been a

before the election, He must have resided in the should be proclaimed. Such proclamations gen- qualified elector or native-born citizen of the State, erally followed. In Philadelphia the declaration

he shall have removed therefrom and returned, was first read to the people on Monday, the 8th of July, by John Nixon, in the State-house yard, tion. He must have resided in the election dis

then six months immediately preceding the elecfrom an observatory erected there by the Ameri

trict where he offers to vote at least two months can Philosophical Society in 1769 to observe the immediately preceding the election. If his name transit of Venus over the sun. Nixon was a member of the council of safety, and read the declara- least one qualified voter of the district or division

is not upon the registry list, he must produce at tion instead of the sheriff of the county, who was originally requested to perform that service. In

prove his residence by affidavit, and himself

make affidavit to the facts upon which he claims the afternoon the declaration was read to the five

a right to vote, also that he has not moved into battalions of associators on the commons. The

the district for the purpose of voting therein. king's arms over the door of the supreme courtroom in the State-house were torn down by a com- ducing the tax receipt, or by making affidavit

Proof of payment of taxes must be made by pro. mittee of associators appointed for the purpose. that it has been lost, destroyed or that he never In the evening they were burned amidst the ac

received any. clamations of a large crowd of spectators, Bonfires were lighted, bells were rung, and the most

A NATURALIZED CITIZEN must have the same notable of all the peals which sounded over the qualifications as to residence in the State and district city was that of the old State-house bell, which assessment and payment of taxes as a native-born had been cast twenty-four years before, bearing citizen. He must have been naturalized one month upon its side the prophetic and remarkable motto,

before the election. If his name is not on the regProclaim liberty throughout the land, to all the istry list, he must prove his residence by the testiinhabitants thereof."

mony of a citizen of the district or division, and himself state by affidavit when and where and by what court he was naturalized, and produce his naturalization certificate for examination. On

challenge, a naturalized citizen may be also reELECTIONS IN 1876.

quired, even when his name is upon the registry In 1876 general elections will be held in the city list, to produce a naturalization certificate, unless of Philadelphia as follows:

he has been for five years consecutively a voter in

the district. For city and ward officers, on Tuesday, February 15. To be elected : Members of councils, assessors, election officers, school directors, etc. The Public Ledger announces that the pressure

Last day for payinent of taxes, January 15, 1876. upon its advertising columns is so great that it Last day for naturalization, January 15th. must henceforth issue supplements on WednesFor county and State officers, on Tuesday. No- days as well as Saturdays. Nearly 2000 advervember 7th. To be elected: Electors of Presi- tisements were offered for its last Saturday's edident and Vice-President of United States, mem- tion, being the largest number ever presented to bers of Congress, a sheriff, county treasurer and any Philadelphia journal in one day. Its daily register of wills : senators for even-numbered dis- circulation is now over 92,000, and before the Centricts to serve two years, senators for odd-num- tennial year it will score above 100,000. To all bered districts to serve four years, assemblymen to newspapers which depend upon their own merits serve two years.

for success the prosperity of a well-conducted Last days for extra assessment, 6th and 7th of journal like the Ledger is not only gratifying, but September

the surest promise of their own growing power Last day for payment of taxes, October 7th. and reward - The (Daily) Times, Philadelphia, Last day for naturalization, October 7th. April 13, 1875.

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