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Sixth Month,]

JUNE.

[1876.

MOON'S PHASES, Philadelphia.
d. . .

d. k. m.
O Full Moon... 6 7 36 P.M.

New Moon... 21

5 16 P.M. (Last Quarter 14 10 13 P.M. D First Quarter 28 10 13 A.M.

Day of the Year. | Day of the Month. | Day of the Week.

PHENOMENA.

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THE SUN, THE MOON,

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Philadelphia, Philadelphia,

Philadelphia.
Rises Souths Sets Rises. Souths Sets. High Tide. Low Tide.

(Apo., 8d. 5h. P.M. A.M. A.M. P.M. P.M. P.M. A.M.

A.M. P.M. A.M. P.M.

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6 4 10 8 19 19

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THE EPHEMERIS.

THE LEDGER ALMANAC. -At the commenceTue Ephemeris for the present year gives, as mcnt of every year Mr. Childs, of the Philaheretofore, the day of the year, the day of the delphia Ledger, presents to the ninety odd thoumonth and day of the week, in civil time, accord- sand daily subscribers to that popular journal a ing to which the day begins at midnight. Next copy of the now famous Ledger Almanac, conare given the time of sunrise, the time before or taining a vast amount of information which most after noon at which the sun's centre souths and people, and business men particularly, like to have the time of sunset. The times of sunrise and sun- always near them for consultation, as occasion set are in each case for the upper limb or edge of may require. This little publication is given the sun, corrected for refraction. They are more away, and we do not suppose there is to-day a accurate than usually found in popular almanacs, dwelling-house, or a counting-room, or a shop, or and will give the time with sufficient accuracy for a factory in all Philadelphia without exhibiting ordinary purposes. An ordinary surveyor's level this perennial proof of Mr. Childs' liberality and will give ihe horizon where the upper edge of the thoughtfulness. The edition for the current year, sun should be at the time given in the almanac. we may add, surpasses its predecessors not only If the telescope of the leveling instrument inverts, in the variety of its contents, but also in the bindthe upper edge will, of course, be apparently the ing and general make up.-New York Bulletin, lower one. Next are given the times of rising, January 21, 1875.

THE LEDGER IN 1840 AND IN 1875. these machines is "six cylinder," the other three

being each “four cylinder," and are capable each [From the Public Ledger Money Market.] of printing steadily 16,000 copies per hour. The

larger of these machines cost $36,000, and the This is July 1, 1875. On the first day of July, three smaller each $28,000. All four of them are 1849, the first "money." article appeared in the daily put in requisition to print the Ledger ediPublic Ledger as, a department of the paper,

tion, and are able, including necessary stoppages, The same individual that pens this paragraph to print and fold the entire edition in three hours prepared that first article, and in all the thirty- and ten minutes. To the uninitiated in newspafive years intervening the two dates named, this per making the using of four machines to print particular department of the Ledger has been in the same edition of the paper is explained by the his special charge and daily contributed to by fact that the Ledger type-forms are stereotyped, him." Thirty-five years! It is just hall the time the establishment having a stereotyping departallotted to the life of man. And what changes in ment adjoining its composing-room, in which as our own little world, the Ledger! When it was many plates are daily made as there are machines determined first to maintain a department devoted to put them on. But for these facilities of the in the “money market" and kindred subjects, the rotary press and the multiplication of stereotype purpose had been preceded by but one other paper, forms, both of which, as inventions applied to The New York Herald. The Ledger then was but newspaper publishing, are largely within the thirfour years old, and "small for its age.' It was ty-five years herein referred to, the daily printing published at Second and Dock streets, in a small, of the Ledger's edition would be impossible. low building, unattractive in appearance and most These four machines are driven by two steampoorly appointed in all its mechanical depart- engines of thirty-five horse power, aided and suments, though up to the average of its time. The perintended by a manual force of about fifty men. mechanical force was one double cylinder press, The white paper, dry, nightly printed weighs driven by a small engine. The editorial and com- about six thousand six hundred pounds, or, inposing rooms were upon the second and only other clu the Saturday supplement, about forty-two floor used of the building. For the editors and thousand pounds per week. The material of this reporters about six feet of the front second story paper is about 70 per cent. straw and 30 per cent. was partitioned off, and this again was divided, wood and old paper. The discovery of the applithe sanctum sanctorum being at the extreme cation of the two kinds of material named to such corner, a sort of closet, 32 by about 6 fect. use is as new as are the wonderful inventions in The whole office arrangements were primitive, printing machinery. Indeed, without an increased and its affairs most economically administered. supply of material for paper the increased faciliThe Ledger at that time had a daily circulation ties for printing it would have been comparatively of 12,000 to 14,000 copies, and was printed on a valueless. Were rags now entirely relied upon double sheet, cut by hand. Such was this great for paper, enough of them could not be found in local newspaper of Philadelphia thirty-five years all the world. The amount of ink used to blacken ago, as remembered by one who has remained the paper of the Ledger's edition is about three continuously with it from that day to this, barrels of 1100 pounds per week. Within the

What is the Ledger now? It has moved with last thirty-five years the magnetic telegraph has the world, kept pace with the progress of the age, advanced scarcely more on the old mail-wagon and followed closely all the improveinents that in the dissemination of news than have the im. tend to lighten human labor, to add to the com- provements in printing increased the multiplicaforts of those who are engaged in its daily production of printed copies over the greatest capacity tion, and to cheapen the cost of that production possible in 1840. for the hundreds of thousands of readers who Such has been the progress in one pursuit within profit from the practical information that it assid. the cognizance of one individual in half a lifetime. uously labors to give, The Ledger establishment, Nearly every one, in his own history, can trace it is believed, is not surpassed in completeness by similar progress in the same time, and yet the that of any other in the world, and probably is change is achieved so quietly, the means following not equaled. It is now one of the institutions of so closely the necessities as they arise, that the Philadelphia, and as such, within the last seven wonder is not so much that we advance so rapidly years has been visited by hundreds of thousands as that why the very simple and the very useful of citizens and strangers, who have passed through inventions in labor-saving were not brought into it and admired its very perfect appointments. As requisition long before. Our grandmothers, who compared with the Dock street office of 1840, and carried their little grists of grain to mill in one the number of its employees, the change is about end of a bag, balanced across the horse's back by as wide as is the difference in circulation. The a stone in the other end, were as much astonished editorial department is now a suite of rooms, all when told to discard the stone and supply its of them elegantly frescoed and furnished, and weight with additional grain as we of the present not only abundantly supplied with every article arc in witnessing half a dozen machines printing of stationery, but with libraries filled with the the same matter at the same time. The Ledger choicest works of reference. In the printing de has reached an edition of 93,500 copies, with some partment the old style cylinder press has given little fluctuating above and below that number, place to four huge printing machines, filling one and will probably, in its order of increase for the of the most spacious newspaper printing-rooms last two or three years, before our next anniverin the world, all of which machines are requisite sary comes round, touch the grand edition of one to the prompt production of the Ledger every hundred thousand copies daily! And this huge morning. These machines are all rotary--that is, cdition, with news from all quarters of the world, the forins from which the paper is printed revolve is supplied with less effort than was its smaller around the pressure that prints it, and so involves daily edition of 12,000 to 14,000 copies thirty-five the principle of swiftest motion possible. One of years ago.

Seventh Month,]

JULY.

(1876.

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MOON'S PHASES, Philadelphia.
d. h. 19.

d.
O Full Moon... 6 10 37 A.M.

New Moon... 20 11 52 P.M.
Last Quarter 14 8 55 A.M. D First Quarter 27 10 18 P.M. PHENOMENA.
THE SUN, THE MOON,

THE TIDES,
Philadelphia. Philadelphia,

Philadelphia.
Rises Souths Sets Rises, Souths Sets. High Tido. Low Tide.

(Apo., sd, 7h. P.M.
A.M.P.M.
P.M. P.M.

A.M. - A.M. | P.M.A.M. P.M. h.m.m. s.h.m. h. m. h. m. h. m. d. 1 h. m. h. m. i, m. k. m.

(Per., 2011. Sh. P.M. 1831 is

4 36
3 40 7 32 3 29 8 23

0 42 10

9 25 9 52 4 14 4 44 5.3 1.20 A.M. O in Apo. 184 2 S

4 36 3 51 7 31 4 33 9 11 11 11 10 20 10 48 5 II 5 39 5.5 4.18 A.M. 0 °C. 185 3.M

4 37
4 27 31 5 35 10 I 44 12 11 17 11 44 6 7

36 5.7 8.15 P.M. 0 sets. 186

4 Tu

4 37 4 12 7 31 6 31 10 53' 2 26 13 on 7 3 7 30 5.8 11.39 P. M. Vega SE 187 5

W
4 38 4 23 7 31 7 22 11 44 3 14 14

o 58 7 54

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8
4 0 34

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F
4 39 4 42 7 30 8 40 I 23

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8 6 I 17

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610
4 10 25

6.5

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2

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3 I 25 8 35 9 121 3 21

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8 6

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I 41
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4 49 5 11

8 6.4 1

7.50 A.M. 9 in Aph, 208 26 W 4 55 6 15 7 19 11 8 4 49 10 20 5 31 5 51 o 30 6.3 6.29 A.M. Ở in Aph. 209 27 Th4 55 6 14.7 18 O 14 5 33 10 44

6
6 12
6 33 I 10

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2 39 3 7 5.010.05 A.M. 54 (. 212 30 S 4 58 6 8 7 15 3 28 7 57 A.M. 9

8

49 9 20 3 35 4 8 5.3 11.08 P.M. Altair S. 21331 M 4 58 6

57 141 4 26 8 48 0 23 10 9 52 10 21 4 39 5 11 5.4|| 5.37 A.M. South. JULY.

ciety as it is degraded by fashionable dissipation,

but as the word stands for the relations of people Jupiter 5° north of the Moon, July 2.

to each other as a community: We may say that Saturn 1° south

10.

the Philadelphia Ledger stands alone, sui generis, Venus 11°

20.

as a newspaper, which, besides giving the news Mars

21.

of the day, like other papers, takes its readers by Jupiter 50

29. the hand, and, no matter whether they be already

learned or ignorant, gives them instruction in GEORGE W. Childs, the proprietor of the Phila- moral and intellectual philosophy of a quality delphia Public Ledger, commenced six years ago which is not excelled by that of the best college tbe publication of an almanac for the use of the professors, and which is given in language that subscribers and friends of the Ledger, which is can be comprehended by the young and illiterate given to them gratuitously. Like the Ledger the as well as by grown persons and the learned. almanac is of pcculiar excellence, as in it is brought There is no other newspaper in this country of together a variety of very useful information, some which we could speak as we would like to do of of which one would scarcely know where to look the Public Ledger. Without it, Philadelphia to find it. To give the contents of this publica- would be without its best friend. There are thou. tion in detail we should almost republish the whole sands of people in that city who depend on the of the fifty-six pages of matter in small print which Ledger not only for information of what is going it contains.

on in the world, but on its opinions and judgments If we did not say a word in this connection about on questions of the day, and the relation the people the Philadelphia Ledger-of which the almanac should hold to these questions. But we must stop. above referred to is an annual free gift-we would We can neither do justice to the subject of our re. be suppressing feelings that claim to be uttered. mark, nor to our own feelings in a brief news. We gratefully acknowledge the Public Ledger to paper notice; and besides, at this distance off we be our instructor in much of whatever education don't expect that what we say will have the we have acquired on public affairs, and on what effect we would desire.-- Daily Telegraph, Du. might be called the philosophy of society-nut so. buque, Iowa, Jan. 26, 1875.

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RATES OF POSTAGE.

Money orders to Canada : Not exceeding $10, The following will show the rates of postage on

twenty cents; over $10 to $20, forty cents; over letters; also the postage on newspapers, books,

$20 to $30, sixty cents; over $30 to $40, eighty pamphlets and all mailable matter to and from all cents ; over $40 to $50, one dollar. parts of the United States.

POSTAGE TO FOREIGN COUNTRIES. LETTERS.

Each y oz. The following table shows the rates of postage

chargeable on letters and newspapers to the foreign Letters to any part of the U. S.........

3 cts.

countries and places named in alphabetical order. Drop letters-that is, letters mailed in

Not a city, to be delivered elsewhere in

LETTERS.

exceeding

News. the same city.... 2 cts.

oz.

papers. Postal cards to any part of the U. S... 1 ct. each. Registered letters are charged 10

Argentine Confederation....

23 cts, cts, in addition to the proper postage.

Aspinwall

5 Austria

*5 BOOKS, TRANSIENT NEWSPAPERS,

For every
Australia, via San Francisco..

5
MDSE, ETC.

do. via England..

15 do. via Brindisi..

21 Buoks, circulars and other printed

Belgium..

*5 mitter (including transient news

Bermuda, via New York..

5

Brazil, direct.... papers), seeds, cuttings, bulbs, roots

15 and scions, in packages not exceed

Canada, Nova Scotia, Newing 4 lbs. in weight, for each ounce

foundland, etc....

3 or fraction thereof....

Cape of Good Hope.....

I ct. Merchandise and samples, in pack.

Chili, Bolivia, Ec dor and

Peru.... ages not exceeding 4 ibs, in weight, for cach ounce or fraction thercof.

China, via Southampton. Newspapers, circulars and periodicals

Denmark, via England. not exceeding 2 oz. in weight, de

East Indies, via San Francisco
do.

*21 posited for local delivery

via England.... .... I ct. cach.

do, via Brindisi.. Exceeding 2 02......

.....12 cts. each.
France...

5
All matter not prepaid ai letter rates must be German States, via North
so wrapped that it can be examined without de- German Union.
stroying the wrapper, and must not contain any Great Britain and Ireland......
writing whatever, inside or outside, except the Holland.
address; but samples may be numbered to cor- Hong Kong, Canton, Swatow,
respond with the numbers in a descriptive letter. Amoy and Foochow, via

Glass, liquids, poisons, explosives and other San Francisco.... dangerous matters are excluded.

Italy, via England....

Japan, via San Francisco.
POSTAGE ON NEWSPAPERS, MAGAZINES AND

Liberia.......
PERIODICALS TO SUBSCRIBERS.

Mexico
The postage rates on all newspaper and period- Norway and Sweden...
publication or news agency and addressed to reg. Shanghai, via San Francisco..
ical
, publications, mailed from a known office of Portugal, via Southampton..

Russia, via England. ulur subscribers or news agents, are as follows : On daily and weekly newspapers and periodi

Spain...... cal publications, and on newspapers and periodi

Switzerland.. cals issued oftener than once a week, two (2) cents Turkey, Syria, etc., via Engfor each pound or fraction thereof.

land On newspapers and periodicals issued less fre

Venezuela, by American quently than once a week, three (3] cents per Venezuela, by British Packet.

Packet....

3 pound or fraction thereof.

13 West Indies, direct.

5 MONEY ORDERS.

do. (British), via St. Rates on money orders in U.S.: Not exceed

Thomas or Havana.

13 ing $15, ten cents; over $20 to $30, fifteen cents;

The asterisk (*) indicates that the postage may be paid over $30 to $40, twenty cents; over $40 to $50,

or not, at the option of the sender of the letter. twenty-five cents. No fractions of cents to be The newspaper postage to Canada is the same as that introduced

to any part of the United States. Money orders to Great Britain and Switzerland: Not exceeding $10, twenty-five cents ;

Postal CARDS TO FOREIGN COUNTRIES. over $10 to $20, fifty cents; over $20 to $30, American postal cards may be sent for an addiseventy-five cents; over $30 to $40, one dollar; tional onc-cent stamp to the following countries : over $49 to $50, one dollar and twenty-five cents. Netherlands, Moldavia, Montenegro, Newfound

Money orders to Germany: Not exceeding $5, land, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Roumania, fifteen cents; over $5 to $io, twenty-five cents; Russia, Servia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Ausover $10 to $20, hfty cents; over $20 to $30, tria, Belgium, Denmark, Egypt, Germany, Great seventy-five cents; over $30 to $40, one dollar; Britain and Ireland, Greece, Greenland, Holland, over $40 to $50, one dollar and twenty-five cents. France, Italy, Turkey and Wallachia.

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Eighth Month,]

AUGUST

(1876.

MOON'S PHASES, Philadelphia.
d. h. m.

d.
Full Moon... 5 I 37 A.M.

New Moon... 19 7 25 A.M. (Last Quarter 12

4 58 P.M.

» First Quarter 26 I 17 P.M.

k. m.

| Day of the Year.

Day of the Month. Day of the Week.

PHENOMENA.

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A.M.P.M. P.M. P.M. P.M.
A.M. A.M. P.M. A.M. P.M.

( Per., 17d. 3h. P.M. h.m. m.

s. hm, k. m. h. m. h. m. d. k. m., h. m. h. m. h. m. (Apo., 29d. 3h. P.N. 214 1 Tu 4 59 6 1 7 12 5 19 9 40 1 9 11

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16
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5 27

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2 31 9 27 9 50: 6.4 gr. bril.
5 18 2 476 47 7 39

7 59 2 52 3 14 10 11 10 33 6.5 2 16 A.M. Prises. 235 22 Tu 5 19 2 32 6 46 8 49 2 40 8 21

3 3 34

3 54 10 53 11 13 6.5 10 19 P.M. 4 sets. 236 23 W 5 20 2 16 6 44 9 58 3 26 8 46 4 4 15 4 36 1 34 11 55 6.5 8 22 P.m. Vega S. 237 24 Th 5 21 2

o 6 43 11 6 4 13 9 12 4 56 5 17 0 15 6.4 9 57 P.M. 7 * rise. 238 25 F 5 22 44 6 42 O 12 5 I 943 5 38 6 1

0 36 0 57 6.21 9 14 P.M. Ó 40. 5 23 1 276 40

5 50 10

6 25 6 50 I 20 I 44 6.0 9 22 P.M. Altair S. 240 27

S
5 24
I 10 6 38

6 42 II 3 8 7 16 7 45 92 35 5.7 F.M. 8 h 0. 241 28 M 5 25 52 6 37 3 13 7 33 11 54 9

8 50 3 4 3 36 5.4 11 58 P.m. h S. 242 29 Tu 5 26 O 34 6 36 4 I 8 25 A.M. 10

9 23 9 53 4 9 4 42 5.3 1 43 A.M. & in . 243 30

W

5 27 0 16 6 34 4 41 9 15 O 51 II 10 22 10 52 5 12 5.415.510 52 P.M. Ald. rises. 244 31 TL 5 28

3 32 5 14 10 2 1 53 12 11 9 11 45 6 11 6 28 5.7 i 3 35 A.M. V South,

9 40110 18

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The Public Ledger was formerly conducted on the theory that a newspaper is a " common carrier" of information, and therefore bound to print whatever may be offered as an advertisement, provided it be not libelous or positively indecent in terms. This theory assumes thai the publisher is responsible only for the character of his editorial matter and the reliability of his news, Immediately on purchasing the paper Mr. Childs determined to assume responsibility for the character of all matter in its columns, and asserted his right to reject any advertisement that he might deem objectionable on the score of public morals. This determination led to the exclusion of a large and profitable class of advertisements. The risk assumed appeared to be great, but the result proved the correctness of his judgment that the people of Philadelphia would sustain their most popular paper in its advanced position. The discrimination has been judicious; it has not forgotten that the Ledger is a secular newspaper, and that the people are entitled to a wide latitude in making known their business wants one to another. So far then from the new rule proving detrimental to the interests of the paper, the advertising patronage has largely increased.--- Philadelphia Proof Sheet.

26.9 26.4

27.8

24.0
27.9

15,238 # First quarter not given. 1 Second quarter not given.

19.6

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