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LEDGER BUILDING,

S. W. Cor. Sixth and Chestnut Streets,

PHILADELPHIA, DECEMBER, 1876.

The eighth annual issue of the Public LEDGER Almanac is herewith presented to the subscribers to the Ledger as an every-day companion for the year

1877

It is furnished free of cost; and in order that every subscriber to the paper may receive the work, an edition of one hundred and ten thousand copies of the Almanac has been printed. It is not published for sale, and none are to be sold.

The Ledger Almanac has become a home book of reference and a treasury of useful information on local and general subjects and events.

GEORGE W. CHILDS.

WESTCOTT & THOMSON, Stereotypors and Electrotypers, Philada.

COLLINS, PRINTER,

Philada

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Aug.

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Sept.

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FOR 1877. 1877. S. M. T. W.T.F. s. 1877. s. M. T. W.T.F.S. Jan. 1 2 3 4 5 6

July 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 7 8 9 10 11 12 13

8 9 10 11 12 13 14 14 15 16 17 18 19 20

15 16 17 18 19 20 21 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 28 29 30 31

29 30 31 Feb. 1 2 3

1 2 3 4 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

5 6 7 8 9 10 11 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 25 26 27 28

26 27 28 29 30 31 Mar. 1 2 3

1 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

2 3 4 5 6 7 8 11 12 13 14 15 16 17

9 10 11 12 13 14 15 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 23 24 25 26 27 28 29

30 1 7 Oct. 1 2 3 4 5 6 6 8 9 10 11 12 13 14

7 8 9 10 11 12 13 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 29 30

28 29 30 31 1 2 3 4 5 Nov.

1 2 3 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

4 5 6 7 8 9 10 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 27 28 29 30 31

25 26 27 28 29 30 June 11 2 Dec.

1 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

2 3 4 5 6 7 8 10 11 12 13 14 15 16

9 10 11 12 13 14 15 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 23 24 25 26 27 28 29

30 31

April 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

May

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(1877.

First Month,]

JANUARY
MOON'S PHASES, Philadelphia,
d. h. m.

d. n. m.
( Last Quarter 6 9 16 A.M. D First Quarter 22 10 52 A.M.

New Moon... 14 8 27 A.M. Ő Full Moon.... 29 3 38 A.M.

Day of the Year. | Day of tho Month.

Day of the Week.

PHENOMENA.

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THE SUN, THE MOON,

THE TIDES,
Philadelphia, Philadelphia.

Philadelphia,
Rises Souths Sets Rises. Souths Sets.

Higb Tide.
Low Tide.

(Apo.,140.1oh. P.M. A.M. P.M. P.M. P.M. A.M. A.M. A.M. P.M A.M. P.M.

(Per., 28d. yh. P.A. h.m.m. s.h.m. h. t.h.m. h. m. d. h. m. . 9. A. m.h.m. 1 M 7 23 4 6 4 45 7

1 1 29 9 7 17 2 52 3 18 10 11 10 37 6.5 8.30 A.M. OS. 2 Tu 7 23 4 34 4 46 8 21

2 29 9 43 18 3 44 4 8 11 3 11 27 6.5 3.10 P.M, OH. 3 3 W 7 23 5 2 4 47 9 36 3 23 10 11 19 4 32 4 55 11 51

6.5 6.19 P.M. Poie *N. 4 Th 7 23 529 4 48 10 48 4 12 10 36 20 5 18

0 14 0 37 6.4 5.38 A.M. 24 rises. 5 F 7 23 5 56 4 49 11 561 4 59 10 59 21 6

o 6 22 o 58 i 19 6.3 10.05 P.M. Rigel S. 6 6 S

7 23
6 22 4 50 A.M. 5 45 11 24 22 6 44 7 71 141 2 3

6.1

9.22 P.M. Aldebaran S. 7S 7 23 6 48 4 51 1 5 6 30 11 47 23 7 31

7 59 2 26

2 50 5.9 8.42 P.M. h sets. 8 8 M 7 23 7 13 4 52

2 11 7 17 O 15 24 8 28 8 59 318 3 47 5.6 6.19 P.M. 6 sets. 9 9 Tu 7 22 7 36 4 53 3 18 8 5 O 47 25

929 10

1 4 18 4 48 5.4 9.43 A.M. O 9 4. 10 10 W 7 22 8

2 4 54 4 23
856 1 24 20 10 29 11 00

5 20

5 48 5.3 10.48 P. M. Ogr.elong. I. 11 11 Th 7 22 5 23 9 47 2 10 27 11 28 11 57 6 19

2,14 P.M. & 246. 12 12 F 7 22 8 49 4 56 6 18 10 40 3 2 28

7 16

2.07 A.M. stat. 7 21 9 12 4 571 7 5 11 31 4

0 46 1 9 8 5 8 28 5.9 3.03 P.M. & in 2. 14 14 S 7 21 9 34 4 58 7 43 O 20 5 2 0 1 28 1 50 8 471 9 9

6.1 8.02 P.M. 7*S. 15 15 M 2 21 9 55 4 59 8 15 I 66

4 1 2 10 2 31 9 29

9 50 6.3 9.14 P.M. Ó (. 16 16 Tu 7 20/10 15 5 1 8 42 1 50 7

2 50 3 10 10

9 10 29 6.4 3.22 A.M. d rises. 17 17 W 7 19 10 35 5 9 5

2 32 8
3 3 27 3 46 13 46 11

5 6.5

9.01 P.M. Öhi. 18 18 Th 7 19 10 54 5

3 129 8 4 4 4 4 22 11 23,11 41 0.5 5.00 A.M. & in Per. 7 19 11 12 5 4 9 45 3 52 10 9 5 4 40 4 58 11 59

5.16 P.M. Pole *N. 2020 S 7 18 11 30 5 5 10 6

4 33 11 11

5 17 5 37 o 17 O 36 6.4 1.46 A.M. HS.
21 21 S
7 17 11 46 5

6. 10 27
5 16 A.M. 7

5 55 6 16

o 56 I 14 6.3 4.47 A.M. 4 rises. 22 22 M 7 17 12 25 7 10 51 6 2 O 17 8 6 38 7 1 I 351 1 57

6.1

2.19 P.M. OVE. 23 23 Tu 7 16 12 17 5 911 21 6 541 i 26

9 7 28 8 00 2 20 2 47 5.9 8.15 P.M. Aldebaran S. 24 24 V 7 15 12 32 5 10, 11 59 7 51 2 38 10 8 35 9 12 3 19

3 54 5.6

5.47 P.M. V S. 25 25 Th 7 15 12 45 5 11 o 48 8 53

3 52 11

9 50 10 27 4 31 5 9 5.3 7.41 P.M. " sets, 26 26 F

7 14 12 58 5 12 1 50 9 59 5 1 12 II 05 11 42 5 46 6 24 5.4 5.48 P.M, 80 lat. 27 27 S 7 13 13 10 5 13 3 5 11 5

6
5 13

0 16 7

1 7 35 5.7 7.11 P.M. 7* S. (N. 28 28 9 7 12 13 21 5 15 4 27| A.M.

O 461 I 13 8 5 8 32 5.9

0.30 P.M. gr.Hol.lab 29 29 M 7 11 13 31 5 16 5 50 8

7 35 15 1 39 2 5 8 58 9 24 6.1 10.02 P.M. Sirius S. 30 30 Tu 7 10 13 40 5 17 7 10 1 61 8 816

2 54 9 49 10 13 6.3 0.34 A.M. ONC. 31 31

W
7 10 13 4915 181 8 26 2

0 8 35 17

3 181 3 40 10 37 10 596.5 5.45 P.M. | in . ASTRONOMICAL INFORMATION, Etc. Chronological Cycles.

Abbreviations. Doniinical Letter.....,

G2 Ascending node. Degrees. Epact...

Minutes of arc

150 Descending node. Linar Cycle, or Golden Number .....

6

h. Hours. Sular Cycle.

N. North. S. South. 10

m. Minutes of time. Roman Indiction..

5

E. East. W. West. s, Seconds of time. Julian Period ....... Signs of the Planets.

JANUARY O The Sun.

Mars 69 north of the Moon Jan. 9.

Mars.
The Moon.

24 Jupiter.
Jupiter 50

II. 8 Mercury.

h Saturn,

Venus 60
Saturn 1° south

17.
Ô or Al Uranus.
or $ The Earth.

U Neptune.

In the Philadelphia Ledger of the first of July Signs of the Zodiac.

it is stated that “this day thirty-six years ago the p Aries.

- Libra.

Ledger contained its first article under the head 8 Taurus.

m Scorpio.

of The Money Market. The same heading has O Gemini.

I Sagittarius.

been continued in each successive issue of the Cancer.

Capricornus.

paper since, and the hand that penned that arti. Leo.

Aquarius.

cle' furnishes this, and has steadily, without the TTK Virgo.

# Pisces.

intermission of a single day on which the paper Aspects.

was printed, furnished the matter under that par

ticular heading." This makes the money editor o Conjunction, having the same) Longitude or the head of his corps, as he has proved himself o Quadrature, differing 90° in Right As. one of its most competent members.-llarper's 8 Opposition, differing 1800 in cension. Weekly.

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419,380.

a

THE CITY OF HOMES.

total number of males was 398,068, and of females

The increase of the population since THE CONTRASTS OF A CENTURY.

the United States census of 1870 was 143,426, the The astonishing increase of the city of Phila- inhabitants then being 674,022. No return was delphia in houses, inhabitants, industry, manu- made of the number of stores, shops, manufactofactures, trade and commerce, in the course of a ries, mills, stables and buildings, public and private, century, may be learned by the contrast of facts. for other uses than resider.ces. It may be estiIn 1770 the number of houses in the city and sub- mated that the entire number of buildings in the urbs was ascertained to be 4474, within the city city of Philadelphia is at least 155,000. Within bounds 3318, within the Northern Liberties 553, a hundred years the population has increased more within Southwark 603. It was estimated that in than eleven times, whilst the houses and dwellings those dwellings there lived from 25,000 to 30,000 are fourteen times greater in number than they persons. The number of dwelling-houses in other were at the commencement of the Revolution, parts of the county was not ascertained. The Much greater is the change in the methods of return of assessments in the city and county for living. When the Revolutionary war was opened, several years previous to the Revolution showed the built-lip parts of the city were not much far: that the taxables in the county exceeded the tax- ther west than Fourth street. Upon Market and ables in the city about two to one. In 1760 there Chestnut streets there were houses sparsely built were 3624 in the city and 5687 in the county. In as far west as Seventh street. Jefferson says that 1771 the county had increased upon the ratio, the when he wrote the Declaration of Independence city showing 3751 taxables, while the county had at Graff's house, Market and Seventh streets, it 6764. It is therefore probable that the dwelling- was the only house in the square. The dwellinghouses were within the same ratio, and that the houses of the time were of moderate size, Low city contained about one-third of the whole num- ceilings and small windows prevailed even in manber of buildings in the city and county. In 1777. sions of the best character, and this might have whilst the British army was in possession of the been a necessity in consequence of the difficulty city, it was found that there were within the lines of warming the apartments. The open fireplace 3508 dwelling-houses in the city, 781 in South- or the jamb stove-a contrivance fixed alongside wark and 1170 in the Northern Liberties. Ex- of a chimney, which consisted of an iron box excluding the latter two districts as belonging to the tending from one room to another, and which, by county, it may be estimated that the whole num- means of coals placed in it, was expected to warm ber of dwellings in the city and county was from both apartments-was the principal means of 10,000 to 11,000, and that the population was from rendering houses comfortable in winter. Dr. 60,000 to 70,000 persons. Joseph Galloway, who Franklin's Pennsylvanian fireplace, invented in superintended the census taken by the royal army 1742, was used in the dwellings of the rich, but in 1777, reported that in the city, Northern Liber- for ordinary persons the wood burned in the ties and Southwark there were all together 5395 chimney fireplace was the general means of buildings, in which resided 5335 males under warming rooms. The Philadelphians of that day eighteen years, 4996 males above eighteen and obtained their water for culinary and drinking under sixiy, and 13,403 females generally, so that purposes either from wells on their premises or in a total of 22,734 about one-fourth only were from pumps in the public streets, which were men, the great preponderance being made up generally erected by private citizens, who were of women and children. It is probable that at allowed certain privileges in aid of taxation. At that time 6000 men were absent, being adherents night their houses were lighted by the feeble to the patriot cause, so that the real population glimmer of home-made candles, lamps in which of the city proper, Southwark and Northern whale oil was used not having come into fashion Liberties was about 30,000. Joseph Galloway es- except among the wealthiest persons. The greater timated that about one-eleventh of the population proportion of the streets were unpaved except at had fled, making the number of absent Whigs to the sidewalks, which were irregular in the mcihod be from 2500 to 3000mentirely too small an esti- and style of paving, dependent upon the means

We then come to the deduction that the or fancy of the owner of property in front of number of dwelling-houses in the city and county, which the bricks were laid. Passage along the now comprised in the city of Philadelphia, was highway by vehicles was difficult except in very from 10,000 to 11,000, and the population from dry weather, in consequence of the 'mire and 60,000 to 70,000. It must not be forgotten that obstructions which were allowed to accumulate the present area of Philadelphia city is smaller daily. Drainage might be said to be unknown, than the city and county in 1777, in consequence from the want of regulation of gutters and the enof the creation of Montgomery county in 1784, tire absence of sewers and culverts. The streets which took off several townships and consider- were lighted at night by public lamps few and far ably reduced the population in Philadelphia apart, the oil being contained in hanging dishes, county. To make the contrast proper, it would from which protruded a sort of spout, which held be correct to include in this connection the press the wick, which was thick and coarse, and in ent population of Montgomery county to show combustion gave out a great deal of smoke, so the increase in the whole territory. Such exact. that the effect of those beacons was truly to make ness is not needed for our purpose, which is to darkness visible. The police guardianship was in give a general idea of the growth of the city. In the hands of a very few watchmen for night-sercontrast with the statistics of 1776-7 are those of vice, and a small body of constables attendant 1876 in several remarkable particulars. A city upon the aldermen and justices in the daytime. census was taken by authority of councils in April The city was a strange mixture of town and last, which shows that there were 143,936 dwell. country, many village peculiarities and habits ing-houses in the city, in which resided 817,448 being joined with those of urban character. In persons, of whom 472,704 were above the age of a hundred years an entire change has been made twenty-one years and 344,744 under that age. The in municipal management.

mate,

Second Month,]

FEBRUARY.

(1877.

Day of the foar.
| Day of the Month.
| Day of the Week.

MOON'S PHASES, Philadelphia.
d. A. m.

d. m.
Last Quarter 4 11 59 P.M. D First Quarter 20 15 14 P.M.
New Moon... 13 3 58 A.M.

Full Moon... 27 7 13 P.M.

PHENOMENA.

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THE SUN,
THE MOON,

THE TIDES,
Philadelphia. Philadelphia,

Philadelphia.
Rises Souths Sets Rises. Souths Sets.

High Tide.
Low Tide.

(Apo.,od. uh. P.N. A.M. P.M. P.M. P.M.A.M. A.M. A.M.P.M. A.M. P.M.

(Per., 26d. gh. A.M. h.m. m. s.h.m. h. m. h. m. k. 77. d. n. m. h. m. n. m. h. m. 32 1 Th 7 913 575 19 9 39 2 498 59 18

4 2 4 23 11 21 II 42 5.53 A.M. rises. 33 2F 7 8.14 31 5 21 10 51 3 37 9 22 19 4 45 5 7

o 4 6.5 8.15 P.M. Rigel S. 7 7 14 10 5 22 A.M. 4 24 9 40 20 5 29 5 50

026

I 48 6.3 3.08 A.M. d rises. 35 4 S 7 5 14 15 5 23 o 5 12 10 1221 6 12 6 35 1

9

7.08 P.M. h sets. 36 M 7 4 14 19 5 24 9

6 1 10 4322

7 1 7 26
1 54 2 20 5.9

4.01 A.M. 24 rises. 37 Tu 7 3 14 23 5 26

6

51 11 20 23 7 57 8 28 2 45 3 16 5.7 2.01 A.M. 06. = Scarpä. 38 W

2 14 26 5 27 3 18 7 43 o 3 24 9 2 9 33 3 474 21 5.4 9.23 A.M. 39 Th 7 1 14 28 5 28 4 14 8 35 o 542510 6 10 35 4 52 5 25 5.3 6.32 AM 40 9 F

7 0 14 30 5 29 5 3 9 27 1 50 26 11 611 34 5 54 6 25 5.5 10.30 P.M. Spica rises. 41 10 S 6 59 14 305 30 5 44 10 17 2 51 27

o 0 6 53 7 19 5.7 8.40 P.M. 68 6 58 14 30 5 32 6 17 11

4 3 54/28

O 45 7 42 8 4 5.9 3.23 A.M. OO. 43 12 M 6 56 14 29 5 33 6 46 11 49 4 56 29

1 4 1 23 8 23/ 8 42 6.1 10.04 P.M. Pollux S. 44 13 Tu 6 55 14 28 5 34 7 10 o 31 5 58 0 1 411 I 591 9 0918 6.2 6.38 P.M. h sets. 45 14 W 6 54'14 25 5 35 7 31

I 12 6 59 1

2 17 2 36 9 36 9 55 6.4 9.33 A.M. Oh c. 46 15 Th 6 52 14 22 5 361 7 51 I 52 7 59 2 53 3 11 10 12 10 30 6.5

6.00 A.M. 2 rises. 6 51 14 18 5 37 8 11

2 329
1 3 3 28 3 46 10 47 11

9.44 P.M. Procyon S. 48 17 S 6 50 14 14 5 39 8 32 3 14 10 5 4 4 5

4 24 11 24 11 43 6.5 9.04 P.M. Arctur. rises 6 49 14 8 5 40 8 55 3 59 11 12

51 444 5 5

3

6.5 9.14 P.M. Ó C. 50 19 M 16 47 14 2 5 41 9 22 4 47 A.M.

5 50 0 24 0 46 6.3 5.32 A.M. O rises. 51 20 Tu 6 46 13 56 5 42 9 56 5 41 O 21 6 14 6 40

6.32 P.M. & gr. eleng 52 21 W 6 45 13 48 5 43 10 38 6 39 I 33 81 7 10 7 41

1 59 2 29 5.9 0.14 A.M. & in IV 53 22 Th 6 43 13 40 5 44 11 33 7 41 2 43 9 8 1919 이 3 이 3 38 5.6 2.52 A.M. rises. 6 42 13 32 5 45 O 408 45 346 10 9 40 10 17 4 19 4 59 5.3

6.03 P.m. h sets. 6 40 13 23 5 47 I 56 9 48 4 41 11 10 54 11 28 5 36 6 13 5.5 2.59 A.M. 2 rises. 56 25 S

5 24 12

o 66 47 7 25 5.7 11.16 P.M. Vega rises. 2 5 49 4 38 11 42 6 0 13 0 29

48 8 135.9 || 9.58 A.M. Ó HC. 58 27 Tu 6 36 12 51 5 50 5 56 A.M. 6 29 14 I 18 1 408 37 8 59 6.2

ecl. invis 59 28 W 16 34 12 40.5 51|| 7 13 o 34 6 55/15 2 3 2 25 9 22 9 446.3 9.53 P.M. Ởh 0. Fixed and Movable Feasts, Fasts, etc., 1877. Were we to ask a hundred men who, from small Epiphany ..........

Jan. 6 beginnings, have attained a condition of respectaShrove Tuesday.

bility and influence, to what they imputed their 13

success in life, the general answer would be, “It Ash Wednesday..

14 was from being early compelled to think for and Valentine's Day..

14 depend on ourselves." St. Patrick's Day..

......... Mar. 17

The Public Ledger now carries nine columns Palm Sunday

25 to the page, an addition having also been made Maundy Thursday

29 to the length of the columns. It adheres to its Good Friday.....

familiar " old style," but with the new type pre30

sents a beautifully bright and fresh appearance. Easter Sunday..

Apr. The Ledger is the first newspaper of which the Whitsunday

May 20 writer has any recollection: he began to read it Trinity Sunday

27

when he was four years old, and he cherishes for St. John the Baptist's Day

it a peculiar feeling of regard that can hardly be

June 24 expressed-a feeling that we fancy is shared by All Saints' Day.....

Nov. 1 all Philadelphians who departed from the City All Souls' Day..

of Brotherly Love in early youth and who read

2 Advent Sunday.

Dec.

the good old newspaper to-day, in far-off lands. 2

It is the truest and purest public journal in the Christmas Day

85

United States. From the days of Russell Jarvis St. John the Evangelist's Day...........

to the present time, it has been distinguished 37

above all other American newspapers for its FEBRUARY.

rigid adherence to a high moral standard. While

it has been unsurpassed as a netus journal, no Mars 5° north of the Moon Feb.

number is ever issued from its press that could Jupiter 50

}

be kept from the hands of the children of the Venus 30 Saturn 2° south

family for any matter that it contained.--San 14 Diego Union, California, April 6, 1876.

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