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LX. SETSU (En Moderation).
Setsu is auspicious. Excessive moderation ought not to be constant.
Exposition. “Setsu is auspicious," because the strong and weak elements separate from one another, and strong
ones occupy middle positions. “Excessive moderation ought not to be observed with constancy,” because such a course of action is attended with embarrassments. Setsu is joyful and is adventurous ; when it occupies a position, it is moderate; it pursues a middle and just course and is auspicious. The Heaven and the earth follow moderation and the four seasons are produced. . Moderation is carried out within just bounds, and no damage is done to wealth, nor is any injury inflicted on the people.
Interpretation. Water lying above a pond is [the emblem of ] Setsu. Honourable men accordingly establish measures of regularity, and measure their morality.
Positive I. Does not go out of the outer yard. Free from blame.
Interpretation. “[Positive I] does not go out of the outer yard,” that is, he knows whether the path is obstructed or not.
Positive II. Does not go out of the yard inside the gate. Unlucky.
Interpretation. "[Positive II] does not go out of the yard inside the gate. Unlucky”—this shows that he has irrecoverably lost opportunity.
Negative III. When he does not follow moderation, he laments. Free from blame.
Interpretation. When he laments that he does not follow moderation, who is to blame?
Negative IV. Is contented in moderation. Auspicious.
Interpretation. It is auspicious to be contented in moderation, because he receives the superior's instruction.
Positive V. Refines his moderation. Lucky. It is desirable to advance.
Interpretation. It is lucky to refine his moderation. because he occupies a middle position.
Negative VI. Is excessive in moderation ; unlucky, even if just. Remorse disappears.
Interpretation. In excessive moderation, it is unlucky, even if just, because such a course of action is attended with embarrassments.
HOW TO RETURN HIS DEBT FOR A POLICE OFFICER.
A certain police officer called on me in my mansion, and he asked me thus, “One of my fellow fuedal subjects lost his life in serving for the Emperor during the Revolution, whose surviving members of family • became thence greatly poor and helpless. As I could not bear to see them pushed up, I have been sending three sons of his relations to Tōkyō to study, but as I am poorly paid, I have made thereby a debt of six or seven thou
I have an estate worth ten thousand yen in my native province, so that I have been caring only for the education of the three young men, but not a bit for
my debt. What was my wonder, however, on finding that
debt is amounted to 13,000 yen, while the dullness ef general commerce reduced my estate to 3000 yen's worth! I may sell it, but it is not sufficient; otherwise I shall be pressed by my creditor. I have
been thus greatly troubled for this matter, day and night, and a consequent sickness of my body is making me unfit for my present service. Will you please teach me how to return
debt ? I divined and obtained the “Positive II” of “Se-tsu (en 3).”
“This hexagram comes from the change in the *Negative I' of 'Kan.' Now ‘Kan’has water in both outer and inner complements, and 'water' is always tending to flow, so that the change in its first into a pond' represents the building of a bank to stop its flowing. Applying this to your debts, it represents that you have borrowed current money, and stopped its currency. “[Positive I] does not go out of the outer yard,' whose 'Appendix,' “The cause of disorder of things is the speech. When a sovereign is not careful of his speeches, he loses his vassals. When a vassal is not careful of his speeches, he loses his self.
Therefore honourable men do not speak anything carelessly,' which means not to speak rashly. "[Positive II] does not go out of the yard inside the gate. Unlucky,' means that it is unlucky without speaking. For none borrows money without necessity, but if the debt be too much for his means to return, he will be obliged to destroy himself and his estates. The bank can hold water in it, but if the water be too much it will be broken, and the fields will be inundated, so that it must be supplied with proper notches. As debt is exactly like the water in a pond, it must be limited not to overflow, which is the meaning of Setsu.' In order to do this, you have only to be thrifty and chastitious. I shall
now suggest you the method which is to be pursued. “However cheap is become the market price of your estate, it can not be restored by any human power, sell it for 3000 yen, pay that amount to your creditor, and thus complete your chastity. Out of your monthly renumeration of 200take 50 for your living and 30 for so
ciality, and you have 120 left, which may be paid to your creditor monthly. Ask him to take the rate percent at 8, and then deducting 800 yens' interest from the annual sum of 1,400, the remaining 640 yens will be reduced in the remaining capital of 10,000. In this way you can finish your duty in eleven years or a little more. Perhaps he will not consent to your payment of monthly installment, but never mind; you can persuade him, if you will complain him by explaining your real circumstances. Though seek all through the world, no one more foolish can be found, than those who wish to abstract things out of emptiness, and those who wish offer what is not. No better means than the aforesaid one can be thought of, however diligently you may deliberate, so that if he will still force you to pay, you can do nothing, but run into a bankruptcy. If so, he will not be able to obtain a cent, and you will lose your station. I do not think that he is such a fool as to cause the loss on both parties. As your estate is only your body and life, he will be obliged to comply with your request at last.
You may ask me why do I know that.
I shall tell you. “You are in the 2nd. element of 'Da,' and therefore it. is in the time which you must open your mouth and complain to him. The homologue is the 'Positive V, and the 'Kan' of the outer complement is 'ear,' and 'heartsicliness, so that he will be obliged to comply with you though reluctantly. Thus the ‘Positive V says, 'Refines his moderation. Lucky' which expresses his agreement. But if you do not manage it presently, you will be behind time and will come to destroy your house. The 'Interpretation' says, 'Positive II does not go out of the yard inside the gate.' This shows that he has irrecoverably lost opportunity; i. e., if you will lose the time of the middling of the Positive II' and advance to the 'Negative III, you will fall into a bankruptcy
creditor will be more troubled.
The 'Negative III' says, 'When he does not follow moderation, he laments’and the ‘Negative VI,' 'Is excess in moderation, unlucky;' which I shall not explain, they are self-evident. As you have your life as your only estate, you must limit your concern for your debt to one hour every day, and the remaining hours must be contributed to your comforts of mind; otherwise, your estate will bring forth a sickness in your body.
"It says, 'Setsu ; auspicious with constancy. Excessive moderation ought not to be followed.' "Setsu' is auspicious as the second and the fifth lines are middling and appropriated in anything, neither too long nor too short. 'Excessive moderation, etc.' means to keep in 'moderation' and not to be concerned with anything easily. Thus the 'Exposition' says, “Moderation is carried out within just bounds, and no damage is done on wealth, nor is any injury inflicted on the people. Now, if you will keep chastity and thriftiness in mind and proceed as indicated, you will be free of your bankruptcy, and your creditor of loosing his loan. Do not tarry, but go at once.”
Mr. -—was very much pleased with this divination and took leave of me with hearty thanks-givings. A few days later, he wrote to me, "Ön following your advice, my accumulated concerns were dispersed, and I feel myself very well again. My life is really your gift