## Thermal PhysicsCONGRATULATIONS TO HERBERT KROEMER, 2000 NOBEL LAUREATE FOR PHYSICSFor upper-division courses in thermodynamics or statistical mechanics, Kittel and Kroemer offers a modern approach to thermal physics that is based on the idea that all physical systems can be described in terms of their discrete quantum states, rather than drawing on 19th-century classical mechanics concepts. |

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### Contents

Entropy and Temperature | 28 |

TEMPERATURE | 41 |

Integrated Deviation | 54 |

Boltzmann Distribution and Helmholtz Free Energy | 55 |

Thermal Radiation and Planck Distribution | 88 |

Chemical Potential and Gibbs Distribution | 118 |

Ideal Gas | 152 |

Fermi and Bose Gases 181 | 198 |

Phase Transformations | 276 |

Binary Mixtures | 310 |

Cryogenics | 334 |

Semiconductor Statistics | 354 |

Kinetic Theory | 390 |

Propagation | 424 |

Appendix A Some Integrals Containing Exponentials | 439 |

Appendix B Temperature Scales | 445 |

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### Common terms and phrases

absolute zero approximation assume average number Boltzmann bosons calculated called Carnot Chapter chemical potential classical regime composition condensation conduction band conduction electrons configuration Consider cooling curve defined denote derivative distribution function donor electrical electron concentration entropy equal equation eutectic Example expansion factor Fermi energy Fermi gas Fermi level fermion Figure flow flux density frequency gases Gibbs free energy Gibbs sum given ground orbital heat capacity Helmholtz free energy hydrogen ideal gas impurity increase integral interactions ionized isentropic isothermal kinetic energy limit liquid 3He low temperatures magnetic field mass mixture molecules monatomic negative number of atoms number of particles obtain occupancy oscillator p-n junction partition function phase diagram photons probability problem properties radiation ratio refrigerator reservoir result semiconductor Show solid solubility gap spin excess superconducting superfluid term thermal average thermal contact thermal equilibrium thermodynamic total number transfer transition unit valence band velocity volume Waals