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should be left to make the best terms they could with the enemy.

The regiments sailed away, and the citizens of Londonderry were left to their own devices. Independently of the decision of the council they denounced Lundy as a traitor, threatened to blow out his brains, or hang him on the walls, and prepared to defend themselves to the death.

But there was treachery within the walls, for on the night of April 17, when the Jacobite forces were steadily advancing, it was found that the gates were still open, and that the keys had disappeared. The citizens, however, were soon on the alert; the guards were immediately doubled, the pass-word was changed, and the whole town stood to arms.

At dawn of day, on April 18, watchers on the ramparts espied James's army marching onwards. Moved by a common impulse, and led by two gallant officers—Major Baker and Captain Murray—and inspired by the preaching of a Protestant clergyman named Walker, soldiers and gentlemen, artisans and yeomen, rushed to the walls, seized pike and musket, and prepared to man the guns. A shout of ‘No surrender' rent the air; and a discharge of shot from the nearest bastion warned James that Londonderry was not yet his.

During the night of April 18, Lundy left the town, with the sanction of Murray and Walker. Next morning the civil administration was placed in the hands of Walker, while Murray was appointed to the military command.


Preparations were then completed for a resolute defence. All the inhabitants capable of bearing arms were distributed into eight regiments, which

were duly officered with colonels, captains and ensigns. In a few hours each man knew his post, and was ready at beat of drum to repair to it. Though no strict discipline

or could be maintained, an admirable regularity prevailed; and, if not under military law, the combatants showed the true military spirit. When a soldier became spent with fatigue, he retired to rest without waiting for permission, and his place was instantly supplied by a comrade, without waiting for orders. There was no reluctance to avoid doing so, however inconvenient; no impatience under labour, however severe. At suitable opportunities, volunteer rallying parties were formed, issuing from the defences and attacking the hostile lines, frequently returning with supplies of provisions and plunder. The stimulus of religious enthusiasm kept alive the courage, and refreshed the energies of the defenders. A large part of the day was devoted to preaching and praying . Eighteen clergymen of the Established Church, and seven or eight Nonconformist ministers, besides taking their share in the toils of the siege, collected the people at stated intervals in the cathedral, the Anglican liturgy being used in the morning, and the simpler service of the Dissenters in the afternoon. The cathedral, however, was not only a place of worship, but a military position. Cannon were planted on the summit




of its tower, and gunpowder stored in its vaults.

James and his generals were perplexed by a defence which was conducted in defiance, as it seemed, of all the ordinary rules of war. When the inhabitants refused to surrender, and would have none of his promises or conditions, he hastily returned to Dublin, angry and confused, entrusting the conduct of the siege to Maumont, a French general—Richard Hamilton being second in command. The operations then began in earnest. For several days the town was battered by heavy ordnance. It was soon on fire in several places.

Roofs and upper storeys of houses fell in and crushed the inmates. During a short time, the garrison, many of whom had never before seen the effect of a cannonade, seemed to be discomposed by the crash of chimneys, and by the heaps of ruin mingled with disfigured corpses. But familiarity with danger and horror produced in a few hours the natural effect.

The spirit of the people rose so high that their chiefs thought it safe to act on the offensive. On the 21st of April, a sally was made under the command of Murray. The Irish stood their ground resolutely, and a furious and bloody contest took place. Maumont, at the head of a body of cavalry, flew to the place where the fight was raging. He was struck in the head by a musket ball, and fell a corpse.

The besiegers lost several other officers and about two hundred men before the colonists could be driven in. Murray escaped with difficulty. His horse was killed under him; he was beset by enemies; but he was able to defend himself till some of his friends made a rush from the gate to his rescue, with old Walker at their head.'1

May came and went. June came, and still Londonderry was unconquered. Nor was there any slackening of the defence in vigour and bravery of spirit. In the sallies and skirmishes which rapidly succeeded one another, the advantage, on the whole, was with the besieged. They had captured numerous prisoners, and two French banners, which hung as trophies in the chancel of the cathedral. The besiegers were amazed at their persistency; it seemed that the siege 'must be turned into a blockade.' But before adopting this slow operation, they resolved on a final effort to carry the town by assault. The point of attack selected was an outwork called Windmill Hill, near the southern gate. Every effort was made to inflame the ardour of the forlorn hope, which was led by Captain Butler, son of the Lord Mountgarret.

On the walls, the colonists were drawn up in three ranks. The duty of those in the rear was to load the muskets of those in front, and to take their places when they fell. Boldly, and with a terrible clamour, the Irish advanced ; but after a stern and prolonged contest were driven back. Amidst the thickest fire might be seen the women of Londonderry, serving out water and ammunition to their brothers

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and husbands. In one place, where the crumbling battlements were only seven feet high, Butler and some of his men reached the top; but they were all killed or made prisoners. At length, after 400 of the Irish had fallen, the retreat was sounded.

Then the blockade began, and the enemy spared no exertions to render it complete. All the approaches to the city by land were closely guarded; north and south, east and west, were extended the long lines of the Irish army. The river banks bristled with forts and batteries ; and still further to render impossible the water passage, a great barricade was constructed across the river about a mile and a half below the city. Several boats full of stones were sunk;1 a row of stakes was driven into the bottom of the river ; large pieces of fir-wood, strongly bound together, formed a boom which was more than a quarter of a mile in length, which was fastened to both shores by cables a foot thick.' The sufferings of the besieged were now

Their supplies of provisions had long been exhausted, and they were driven to have recourse to the most nauseous and loathsome substitutes for food. Famine is generally accompanied by her fell sister, pestilence, and the ranks of the defenders were rapidly thinned by an epidemic fever. Yet there was no complaining heard in the streets. The parent shed no tears over the child smitten by the plague,


| Macaulay.

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