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instead of ed: as, learnt, spelt, spilt, &c. These should be
avoided in every sort of composition. It is, however, pro-
per to observe, that some contractions of ed into t, are un-
exceptionable : and others, the only established forms of
expression: as, crept, dwelt, gilt, &c.: and lost, felt, slept,
&c. These allowable and necessary contractions must
therefore be carefully distinguished by the learner, from
those that are exceptionable. The words which are obso-
lete have also been omitted, that the learner might not be
induced to mistake them for words in present use. Such
are, wreathen, drunken, holpen, molten, gotten, holden,
bounden, &c. : and swang, wrang, slank, strawed, gat,
brake, tare, ware, &c.
SECTION 11. Of Defective Verbs; and of the differ-

ent ways in which verbs are conjugated. DEFECTIVE VERB$ are those which are used only in some of their moods and tenses.

The principal of them are these.



might, Shall,

should, Will,

would, Must,

must, Ought,


quoth, That the verbs must and ought have both a present and $ast signification, appears from the following sentences: “I must own that I am to blame ;" “ He must have been mistaken;" “ Speaking things which they ought not ;" “ These ought ye to have done.”

In most languages there are some verbs which are defective with respect to persons.

These are denominated inpersonal verbs. They are used only in the third person, because they refer to a subject peculiarly appropriated to that person; as, “ It rains, it snows, it hails, it lightens it thunders." But as the word impersonal implies a total absence of persons, it is improperly applied to those verbs which have a person : and hence it is manifest, that there


Perf. cr Past. Part.

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ind they

, while

Pricia ated by

is no such thing in English, nor indeed, in any language, as a sort of verbs really impersonal.

The whole number of verbs in the English language, regular and irregular, simple and compounded, taken together, is about 4.500. The number of irregular verbs, the defective included, is about 177.*

SomeGrammarians have thought that the English verbs, as well as those of the Greek, Latin, French, and other languages, might be classed into several conjugations; and that the three different terminations of the participle might be the distinguishing characteristics. They have accordingly proposed three conjugations ; namely, the first to consist of verbs, the participles of which end in ed, or its contraction t; the second, of those ending in ght; and the third of those in en. But as the verbs of the first conjugaiion, would so greatly exceed in number those of both the others, as may be seen by the preceding account of them ; and as those of the third conjugation are so various in their form, and incapable of being reduced to one plain rule ; it seems better in practice, as Dr. Lowth justly observes, to consider the first in ed as the only regular form, and the other as deviations from its after the example of the Saxon and German Grammarians. Before we close the account of the verbs, it


afford instruction to the learners, to be informed, more particularly than they have been, that different nations have made "use of different contrivances for marking the tenses and moods of their verbs. The Greeks and Latins distinguish them, as well as the cases of their nouns, adjectives, and participles, by varying the termination, or otherwise changing the form of the word ; retaining, however, those radi£al letters, which prove the inflection to be of the sam kindred with its root. The modern tongues, particularly the English, abound in auxiliary words, which vary the meaning of the noun, or the verb, without requiring any considerable varieties of inflection. Thus, I do love, I did love, I have loved, I had loved, I shall love, have the same import with amo, amabam, amavi, amaveram, amabo. It is obvious, that a language, like the Greek and Latin, which can thus comprehend in one word the meaning of two or

* The whole number of words in the English language, is about thirty-five thousand.

three, must have some advantages over those which cannot. Perhaps, indeed, it may not be more perspicuous; but, in the arrangement of words, and consequently in harmony and energy, as well as in conciseness, it may be much more elegant.



An Adverb is a part of speech joined to a verb, an adjective, and sometimes to another adverb, to express some quality or circumstance respecting it: as, “ He reads well ;“ A truly good man ;" “ He writes very correctly;"

Some adverbs are compared, viz. “ Soon, sooner, soonest ;" “ often, oftener, oftenest." And those ending in ly, are compared by more, and most cas, Wisely, more wisely, most wisely.”

Adverbs seem originally to have been contrived to express .compendiously in one word, what must otherwise have required two or more : as, “ He acted wisely," for he acted with wisdom; “ prudently,” for, with prudence; “ He did it here,” for, he did it in this place ; “exceedingly,” for, to a great degree ; “ often and seldom,” for, many

and for few times ; " very,” for in an eminent de

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gree, &c.

There are many words in the English language that are sometimes used as adjectives, and sometimes as adverbs: as, “ more men than women were there ;" or, “ I am more. diligent than he.” In the former sentence more is evidently an adjective, and in the latter, an adverb. There are others that are sometimes used as substantives, and sometimes as adverbs : as, “ To-day's lesson is longer than yesterday's ;" bere to-day and yesterday are substantives, because they are words that make sense of themselves, and admit besides of a genitive case: but in the phrase, “He came home yesterday, and sets out again to-day," they are adverbs of time ; because they answer to the question when. The adverb much is used as all three : as,

• Where much is given, much is required;" “Much money has been expended ;" “ It is much better to go than to stay. In the first of these sentences, much is a substantive; in the second, it is an adjective; and in the third, an adverb. In short, nothing but the sense can determine what they are.

Adverbs, though very numerous, may be reduced to certain classes, the chief of which are those of Number, Order, Place, Time, Quantity, Manner or Quality, Doubt, Affirmation, Negation, Interrogation, and Comparison. 1,1. Of number : as, “ Once, twice, thrice, &c. '/2. Of order : as, “ First, secondly, thirdly, fourthly, fifthly, lastly, finally," &C.

3. Of place : as, “Here, there, where, elsewhere, any. where somewhere, nowhere, herein, whither, hither, thither, upward, downward, forward, backward, whence, hence, thence, whithersoever," &c.

Of time. 1 of time present : as, “ Now; to-day,”. &c.

Of time past: as, “ Already, beforeglately, yesterday, heretofore, hitherto, long since, long ago," &c.

Of time to come : as, “ To-morrow, not yet, hereafter henceforth, henceforward, by and by, instantly, presently, immediately, straightways,”. &c.

Of time indefinite : as, “ Oft, often, oft-times, oftentimes, sometimes, tsoon, seldom, daily, weekly, monthly, yearly, always, when, then, ever, never, again,” &c.

5. Of quantity: as, " Much, little, sufficiently, how much dow great, enough, abundantly,” &c.

6. Of manner or quality : as, “ Wisely, foolishly, justlyst umjustly, quickly, slowly," &c. Adverbs of quality are the most numerous kind ; and they are generally formed by adding the termination ly, to an adjective or participle, or changing le into ly: as, “ Bad, badly; cheerful, cheerful. ly; able, ably; admirable, admirably."

7. Of doubt: as, Perhaps, peradventure, possibly, perchance." 18. Of affirmation: as, “Verily, truly, undoubtedly, doubtless, certainly, yea, yes, surely, indeed, really,” & 19. Of negation : as, “ Nay, no, not, by no means, not åt all, in no wise," &c. | 10. Of interrogation : as, "How, why, wherefore, whether," &c. } 11. Of comparison : as, “ More, most, better, best, worse,

ast, less, least, very, almost, little, alike," &c.


Besides the adverbs already mentioned, there are many which are formed by a combination of several of the prepositions with the adverbs of place here, there, and where : as, “ Hereof, thereof, whereof; hereto, thereto, whereto; hereby, thereby, whereby ; herewith, therewith, wherewith; herein, therein, wherein; therefore, (i.e.there-for,) wherefore, (i. e. where-for,) hereupon or hereon, thereupon or thereon, whereupon or whereon," &c. Except there. fore, these are seldom used.

In some instances the preposition suffers no change, but becomes an adverb by nothing more than its application : as when we say, 'he rides about ;' he was near falling ;' but do not after lay the blame on me.? There are also some adverbs, which are composed of nouns and the article a: as,. Aside, athirst, afoot, ahead, asleep, aboard, ashore, abed, aground, afloat, &c.

The words when and where, and all others of the same nature, such as, whence, whither, whenever, quherever, &c. may be properly called adverbial conjunctions, because they participate the nature both of adverbs and conjunctions : of conjunctions, as they conjoin sentences; of adverbs, as they denote the attributes either of time, or of place.

It may be particularly observed with respect to the word therefore, that it is an adverb, when, without joining sentences, it only gives the sense of, for that reason. When it gives that sense, and also connects, it is a conjunction : as, " He is good, therefore he is happy.” The same observation may be extended to the words consequently, accordingly, and the like. When these are subjoined to and, or joined to if, since, &c. they are adverbs, the connexion being inade without their help: when they appear single, and unsupported by any other connective, they may be called conjunctions.

The inquisitive scholar may naturally ask, what necessity there is for abverbs of time, when verbs are provid 1 with tenses, to show that circumstance. The answer is, though

bè sufficient to denote the greater distinctions of time, yet, to denote them all by the tenses would be a perplexity withoit end. What a variety of forms must be given to the verb, to denote yesterday, to-day, to-morrow, formerly, lately, just now, now, immediately, presently, soon, hereafter, &c.' It was this consideration that made the ad verbs of time necessary, over and above the tenses.

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