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. The former make speech more concise ; the latter make it more explicit. Relatives comprehend the meaning of a pronoun and conjunction copulative : conjunctions, while they couple sentences, may also express opposition, inference, and many other relations and dependences.

Till men began to think in a train, and to carry their reasonings to a considerable length, it is not probable that they would make much use of conjunctions, or of any other connectives. Ignorant people, and children, generally speak in short and separate sentences.

The same thing is true of barbarous nations: and hence uncultivated languages are not well supplied with connecting particles. The Greeks were the greatest reasoners that ever appeared in the world, and their language accordingly, abounds more than any other in connectives.

Conjunctions are not equally necessary in all sorts of writing. In poetry, where great conciseness of phrase is required, and every appearance of formality avoided, many of them would have a bad effect. In passionate language too, it may be proper to omit them: because it is the nature of violent passion, to speak rather in disjointed sentences, than in the way of inference and argument. Books of aphorisms, like the Proverbs of Solomon, have few connectives; because they instruct, not by reasoning, but in detached observations. And narrative will some. times appear very graceful, when the circumstances are plainly told, with scarcely any other conjunction than the simple copulative and : which is frequently the case in the historical parts of Scripture. When narration is full of images or events, the omission of connectives may, by crowding the principal words upon one another, give a sort of picture of hurry and tumult, and so heighten the vivacity of description. But when facts are to be traced down through their consequences, or upwards to their causes; when the complicated designs of mankind are to be laid open, or conjectures offered concerning them; when the historian argues either for the elucidation of truth, or in order to state the pleas and principles of contending parties; there will be occasion for every species of connective, as much as in philosophy itself. In fact, it is in argument, investigation, and science, that this part of speech is peculiarly and indispensably necessary.”



OF INTERJECTIONS. INTERJECTIONS are words thrown in between the parts of a sentence, to express the passions or emotions of the speaker : as, “ Oh! I have alienated my friend ; alas ! I fear for life ;" “ O virtue! how amiable thou art !”

The English Interjections, as well as those of other languages, are comprised within a small compass. They are of different sorts, according to the different passions which they serve to express. Those which intimate ear.. nestness or grief, are, 0! oh! ah! alas !

Such as are expressive of contempt, are pish! tush! of wonder, heigh! really! strange! of calling, hem! bo ! soho! of aversion or disgust, fob! fie ! away? of a call of the attention, lo! behold! hark ! of requesting silence, bush! hist! of salutation, welcome! hail! all hail ! Besides these, several others, frequent in the mouths of the multitude, might be enumerated; but, in a grammar of a cultivated tongue, it is unnecessary to expatiate on such expressions of pas. sion, as are scarcely worthy of being ranked among the branches of artificial language.

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Section 1..Of the various ways in which words are

derived from one another. HAVING treated of the different sorts of words, and their various modifications, which is the first part of Etymology, it is now proper to explain the methods by which one word is derived from another.

Words are derived from one another in various ways, viz.

1. Substantives are derived from verbs.

2. Verbs are derived from substantives, adjectives, and sometimes from adverbs.


3. Adjectives are derived from substantivge. 4. Substantives are derived from adjectives. 5. Adverbs are derived from adjectives.

1. Substantives are derived from verbs : as, from “ to love,” comes “ lover ;" from “ to visit, visiter ;" from " to survive, suaviver ;' &c.

In the following instances, and in many others, it is difficult to determine whether the verb was deduced from the noun, or the noun from the verb, viz. “ Love, to love ; hate, to hate ; fear, to fear; sleep, to sleep ; walk, to walk; ride, to ride ; act, to act;" &c.

2. Verbs are derived from substantives, adjectives, and sometimes from adverbs : as, from the substantive salt,

to salt;" from the adjective warm, to warm ;' and from the adverb forward, “ to forward.” Sometimes they are formed by lengthening the vowel, or softening the consonant : as, from “

grass, to graze :” sometimes by adding en ; especially to adjectives : as, from “ length, to lengthen ; short, to shorten,"

3. Adjectives are derived from substantives, in the following manner : Adjectives denoting plenty are derived from substantives by adding y: as, from "health, healthy ; wealth, wealthy ; might, mighty,” &c.

Adjectives denoting the matter out of which any thing is made, are derived from substantives by adding en:

from 66 oak, oaken ; wood, wooden; wool, wool. len,” &c.

Adjectives denoting abundance are derived from sub. stantives, by adding ful: as, from “joy, joyful ; sin, sin. ful; fruit, fruitful,” &c.

Adjectives denoting plenty, but with some kind of diminution, are derived from substantives, by adding some : as, from “ light, lightsome; trouble, troublesome; toil, toilsome,” &c.

Adjectives denoting want are derived from substantives, by adding less : as, from“ worth, worthless ;" from scare, careless; joy, joyless,' &c.

Adjectives denoting likeness are derived from substan tives, by adding ly: as, from “ man, manly ; earth, earthly; court, courtly," &c.

Some adjectives are derived from other adjectives, or from substantives, by adding ish to them; which termination, when added to adjectives, imports dimunition, or


lessening the quality : as, " white, whitish ;" i. e. somewhat white. When added to substantives, it signifies si. militude or tendency to a character: as, “ child, child. ish; thief, thievish."

Some adjectives are formed from substantives or verbs, by adding the termination able ; and those adjectives signify capacity : as, “ answer, answerable ; to change, changeable.”

4. Substantives are derived from adjectives, sometimes by adding the termination ness : as, " white, whiteness; swift, swiftness :” sometimes by adding th or t, and making a small change in some of the letters: as, “ long, length ; high, height.”.

5. Adverbs of quality are derived from adjectives, by adding ly, or changing' le into ly; and denote the same quality as the adjectives from which they are derived : as, from “ base," comes “basely;" from “ slow, slowly;"> from “able, ably."

There are so many other ways of deriving words from one another, that it would be extremely difficult, and nearly impossible, to enumerate them. The primitive words of any language are very few; the deriatives forng much the greater number. A few more instances only can be given here.

Some substantives are derived from other substantives, by adding the terminations hood or head, ship, ery, wick, rick, dom, ian, ment, and age,

Substantives ending in bood or head, are such as signify character or qualities : as, “ manlıood, knighthood, false. hood,” &c.

Substantives ending in ship, are those that signify office, employment, state, or condition: as, “ lordship, steward . ship, partnership,” &c. Some substantives in ship, are derived from adjectives : as, “ hard, hardship," &c.

Substantives which end in ery, signify action or habit: as, " slavery, foolery, prudery,' &c. Some substantives of this sort come from adjectives : as, 66 brave, bra. very,&c.

Substantives ending in wick, rick, and dom, denote do. minion, jurisdiction, or condition : as, “ bailiwick, bishoprick, kingdom, dukedom, freedom,” &c.

Substantives which end in ian, are those that signify profession : as, “physician, musician,” &ç. Those that end in ment and age, come from the French, and generally signify the act or habit: as," commandment, usage."

Some substantives ending in ard, are derived from verbs or adjectives, and denote character or habit: as, “ drunk; drunkard ; dote, dotard.”

Some substantives have the form of diminutives; but these are not many. They are formed by adding the terminations, kin, ling, ing, ock, el, and the like : as " lamb, lambkin ; goose, gosling ; duck, duckling ; hill, hillock; cock, cockerel,” &c.

That part of derivation which consists in tracing English words to the Saxon, Greek, Latin, French, and other languages, must be omitted, as the English scholar is not supposed to be acquainted with these languages. The best English dictionaries will, however; furnish some information on this head, to those who are desirous of ob, taining it. The learned Horne Tooke, in his " Diversions of Purley," has given an ingenious account of the derivation and meaning of many of the adverbs, conjunctions, and prepositions.

It is highly probable that the system of this acute grammarian, is founded in truth; and that adverbs, prepositions, and conjunctions, are corruptions or abreviations of other parts of speech. But as many of them are derived from obsolete words in our own language, or from words in kindred languages, the radical meaning of which is, therefore, either obscure, or generally unknown; as the system of this very able etymologist is not fully admitted and established ; and as, by long prescription, whatever may have been their origin, the words in question appear to have acquired a title to the rank of distinct species ; it seems proper to consider them, as such, in an elementary treatise of grammar: especially as this plan coincides with that by which other languages must be taught ; and will render the study of them less intricate. It is of small moment, by what names and classification we distinguish these words, provided their meaning and use are well understood. A philosophical consideration of the subject, may, with great propriety, be entered upon by the grammatical student, when his knowledge and judgment become more improved

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