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TO THE NINTH EDITION.
THE eighth edition of this grammar received considerable alterations and additions : but work: of this nature admit of repeated improvements; and are, perhaps, never complete. The author, solicitous to render his book more worthy of the encouraging approbation bestowed on it by the public, ho again revised the work with care and attention. The new edition, hc hopes will be found much improved. Titu aditions, which are very considerable, are chiefly, such as are calculated, to expand the learner's views of the subject; to obviate objections ; md to render the study of grammar both casy
inte esting This edition contains also a new and enlarg. ed system of parsing; copious lists of nouns arrans ed according to their gender and mumber; and many notes and observations, which serve to extend, or to explain, particular rules and positions. *
The writer is sensible that, after all his endear ours to elucidate the principles of the work, there are tew of the divisions, arrangements, defuiticis, NI rules, against which critical ingenuity cannot devise plausible objections. The suject is attended with 30 much intricacy, and admits of views so various, that it was not possible to render every part of it exceptionable ; or to accommodate the work, in all
* The author conceives that the occasional suiciures, dis persed through the book; and intended to illustrate and up. port a number of important grammatiral points, will not, to young persons of ingenuity, appear cstcitry and useless 113CH8sions. He is persuaded that, by such 60n3, they will be read with attention. And he presumes tout these stricture will gratify their curiosity, stiniunte applicatiello and give so 1.lity and permanence to their gran ni aticallo e del post
respects, to the opinions and prepossessions of every grammarian and teacher. If the author has adopt
that system which, or, the whole, is best suited so the nature of the subject, and conformable to the sentiments of the most judicious grammarians ; if his reasonings and illustrations, respecting particular points, are founded on just principles, and the peculiarities of the English language ; he has, perhaps, done all that could reasonably be expected in a work of this nature; and he may warrantably indulge a hope, that the book will be still more exteos sively approved and circulated.
NGLISH GRAMMAR is the art of speaking and writing the English language with propriety,
It is divided into four parts, viz. ORTHOGRATHY, ETYMOLOGY, SINTAX, and PROSODY.
This division may be rendered more intelligiblatognung minds, by observing, in other words, that Graninartreats first, of the form and sound of the letters, the combinttion cf letters into syllables, and syllables into words, secondly, of the different sorts of words, their various modifications, and their deriva on; thirdly, of the union and right orlo: of words in the formation of a sentences and lastly, of te just pronunciation, and poetical construction of sintonces
OF THE LETTERS.
Sacrion 1...Of the Nature of the Letters, and of a pepe
fect Alphabet. An articulate sound, is the sound of the human voice, formed by the organs of speech.
Orthography teaches the pature and roverso le ters, and the just method of spelling woris.
A letter is the first principles or jcast part, of a word. The Letters of the English language, cared the glish Alphabet, are twenty-six in number.
The following is a list of the Roman, Italick, and Old
English Characters. Roman. Italick. Old English.
Name. Cap. Smail.
Cap. Small. Cap. Small. A a
A perfect alphabet of the English language, and, in. derd, of every other language, would contam a voler of inters, precisely equal to the number of simple artico wie sounds beiongiog to the language. Every simple und would have its distinct character; and that charac Por be the representative of no other sound. Bui this is far from being the state of the English Alphabet. I 423 more original sounds than distinct significant letters; annu, Consequently, some of these letters are made to represent, por one sound done, buí several sounds. This will
appear by reflecting, that the sounds signified by the united letters to sh, 1h, are clementary, and have no single appropri. zis characters, in our alphabet; and that the letters and u represent the different sounds heard in hat, butoa baits din but, buil, mule.
To explain this subject more fully to the learners, ne skill set down the characters male use of to represent si the elementary articulate sounds four language, ane : ly in the manner and order of the present English 312, bet, as the design of the subject will admit, und shall andex to each character the syllable or word, much taiis its proper and distinct sound. And bere it is proper to begin with the vowels.
By this list it appears, that there are in the Ta ..123te turteen simple viwel sounds; but as it Men };123321004, 712, may be considered as diphthus dirbshongalv tre sortiguage strictly speaki.