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There are, in English, nine sorts of words, or, as they are commonly called, PARTS OF SPEECH; namely, the ARTICLE, the SUBSTANTIVE or NOUN; the PRONOUN, the ADJECTIVE, the VERB, the ADVERB, the PREPOSITION, the CONJUNCTION, and the INTERJECTION.
1. An Article is a word prefixed to substantives, to point them out, and to show how far their signification extends : às, a garden, an eagle, the woman 2. A Substantive or noun is the
any thing that exists, or of which we have any notion : as, London, man, virtue.
A substantive may, in general, be distinguished by its saking an article before it, or by its making sense of itself; ap, a buok, the sun, an apple; temperance, industry, chastity.
3. A Pronoun is a word used instead of a noun, to avoid the too frequent repetition of the same word: as, " The man is happy; he is benevolent; he is useful."
4. An Adjective is a word added to a substantive, to express its quality : as, “ An industrious man; a virtuous woman."
An Adjective may be known by its making sense with Tie addion of the word thing : as, a good thing; a bad thing: or of any particular substantive; as, a sweet apple, a pleasant prospect.
5. A Verb is a word which signifies to BE, to DO, or to SUFFER: as,
I rule; I am ruled." A Verb may be distinguished, by its making sense with any of the personal pronours, or the word to befnre :: : as I walk, he pluys, they write ; or, to walk, to play, to zru.
6. An Adverb is a part of speech joined to a vrh en adjective, and sometimes to another adveri, express some quality or circumstance respecting ir
I am ;
ti Hic reads well; a truly good man; I writes Irry correctly."
An Adverb may be generally known, by its answering to me question, How? how much? when? or where? us, in the parase
He reads correctly," the answer to the ques. tion, How does he read? is, correctly.
7. Prepositions serve to connect words with und another, and to show the relation between the nt: 95% ** He went from London 10 York," on she is a riigise;"? " they are supported by industry.”
A l'rco sition may be known by its admitting attorit personal pronoun, is the object ve case ; 95, octubre fun, ii. &c. will allow the objective case after theme with the hr, to them, &c.
* A Conjunction is a part of speech mi kabi Hised to connector join together siniences; Sons of two, to make one sentence: it 50.12. ting oly wor.is: as, Thou and he aro har ou are good." "Two and the entire?
9. Interjections are words drifti parts of a sentence, to express tinc pa tions of the speaker: as, " ) rint! hw ... thou art!"
Tle observations which have been at tranh in distinguishing the parts of sperch um aiIord then some small assistance; buté les much more instructive, to distingueres $16.95, ard an accurac knowledge o 2,5
the following page, ali the past
In the foregoing sentence, the words the, a, are articles; purver, speech, faculty, man, Greator, uses, purposes, are subsiuntives; kim, kis, we, il, ire pronouns ; peculiar, benejite 94, greitost, excellesut, worst, are adjectives; is, was, bestuurd, stropervert, are verbs ; musé, huw, afirn, are adverbs; ofing 01. kv, for, are prepositions; and, but, are conjunctions; and alas is an interjection.
The number of the different sorts of words, or of the parts of speech, has been variously reckoned by different giammarians. Some have enumerated tell, making the pai. diciple a distinci part;' some tight, excluding the participle, and ranking the adjective under the noun; some foul, and others only two, the noun and the verb) supposing the Iest to be contained in the parts of their division. Welave followed those authors, who appear to have given them the 3.25natural and intelligible distribution. Some rema, ks un division made by the learned Horne Tooke, are con. Ginthlt sectiun of the lith chapter of etymology
Tintojacciori, ideed, seeras scarcely worthy of being . sivered as a part of artifcial language or speech, being ver a branch of that natural language, which we possess
comoon with the brute creation, and by which we exunds the sudden emotions and passions that actuate our Bili; as it is used in written as well as oral language,
are measure, bu: deered 2 part of speech.it viss ne virtual sentence, in which the noun and verby
coled under an imperfect or ind posied word.
The inattention of writers and printers to this necessary distinction, has occasioned the frequent use of an before b, when it is to be pronounced; and this circumstance, more than
any other, has probably contributed to that indistinct Utterance, or total omission, of the sound signified by this let. ter, which very often occurs amongst readers and speakers.
An horse, an husband, an herald, an heathen, and many similar associations, are frequently to be found in works of taste and merit. To remedy this evil, readers should be taught to omit, in all similar cases, the sound of the phy and to give the h its full pronunciation.
A or un is styled the indefinite article: it is used in a vague sense
to point out one single thing of the kind, in other respects indeterminate : as “Give me a book ;” that is, any book.
The is called the definite article ; because it ascertains what particular thing is meant: as, “Give me the book ;” meaning some book referred to.
A substantive without any article to limit it, is taken in its widest sense : as, “A candid temper is proper for man ;" that is, for all mankind.
The peculiar use and importance of the articles will be seen in the following examples ; “ The son of a kingthe son of the king--a son of the king." Each of these three phrases has an entirely different meaning, through the different application of the articles a and ihe.
"Thou art a man,' is a very general and harmless po. sition ; but, “ Thou art the man,' (as Nathan said to Da. vid,) is an assertion capable of striking terror and romorze into the heart,
The article is omitted before nouns tiat imply the dir ferent virtues, vices, passions, qualities, sciences, arts, inc. tris horoghs, &c.; as, “ prudence is commendable ; fulse. bilindimus; anger ought to be avoided ;" &c. It is rut prita ito a proper name; as, “ Alexander," (because that
i enotes a determinate individual or parts ar Per acept for the sake of distinguishing a part' var
" He is a Howard, or of the family of the
Howards ;" or by way of eminence: as, Every mag is not a Newton;" “ He has the courage of an Achilles :" or when some noun is understood; “He sailed down the (river) Thames, in the (ship) Britannia.”
When an adjective is used with the noun to which the article relates, it is placed between the article and the noun ; as, a good man," " an agreeable woman,” “ the best friend." On some occasions, however, the adjective precedes a or an; as, “ such a shame," "as great a man as Alexander," “ too careless an author."
The indefinite article can be joined to substantives in the singular number only; the definite article may be joined also to plurals.
But there appears to be a remarkable exception to this rule, in the use of the adjectives few and many, (the latter chiefly with the word great before it,) which, though joined with plural substantives, yet admit of the singular article a; as, a few men; a great many men.
The reason of it is manifest, from the effect which the article has in these phrases; it means a small or great num. ber collectively taken, and therefore gives the idea of a whole, that is, of unity. Thus likewise, a dozen, a score, a hundred, or a thousand, is one whole number, an aggre. gate of many collectively taken ; and therefore still retains the article a, though joined as an adjective to a plural substantive; as, a hundred years, &c.
The indefinite article is sometimes placed between the adjectives many, and a singular noun: as,
purest ray serene,
“ And waste its sweetness on the desert air.” In these lines, the phrases, many a gein, and many a flow'r, reier to many gems and many flowers, separately, not col. lectively considered.
The definite article the is frequently applied to adverbs in the comparative and superlative degree; and its effect is, to mark ine degree the more strongly, and to define it the more precisely : 'as, “ The more I examine it, it more I like it. I like this the least of an,"
" Full many a gem